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Causes for increased aggression
· A hormone produced mainly by the testes in · A neurotransmitter produced in the brain.
males, but also occurs in females.
· It is associated with the development of · High levels of dopamine can be associated with
secondary sexual characteristics in males, schizophrenia.
but has also been indicated in aggression and
dominance behaviours. · High levels of Dopamine = increase levels of
· High levels of Testosterone = increase levels of
aggression…read more

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Wagner, Beuving and Hutchinson (1979) Dabbs et al (1987)
Measures salivary testosterone in violent &
Male mouse castrated = overall levels non-violent criminals.
of aggression are reduced.
Highest levels = violent crimes
Input of testosterone = increase
levels of aggression. Lowest levels = non-violent crimes…read more

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· Gender bias: only carried out on men, unlikely results can be applied to women (A02)
· Use of non-human animals in research: hard to apply the results on non-human animals to humans (A02)
· Not a large amount of participants ­ results therefore can't be generalised sufficiently (A03)
· Human aggressive behaviour is more complex than just the explanation of testosterone levels. (A02)
· Free will/ Determinism ­ suggests that aggressive behaviour is down to testosterone levels ­ ignores the free
will of an individual. (A02)…read more

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· Archer et al (2005): research suggests the association between testosterone and aggression is
higher for female than male samples.
· Baucom et al (1985): women with higher testosterone levels ­ higher occupational status ­ more
· Women may respond to challenging situations with increased testosterone, displaying
aggressive and dominance characteristics.…read more

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Couppis and Kennedy (2008) Buitelarr (2003)
In mice, a reward pathway in the brain Antipsychotics ­ reduce dopamine levels in
becomes engaged in response to an the brain.
aggressive event.
Been shown to reduce aggression.
Individuals will seek an aggressive
encounter.…read more

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