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Method
· Involved 45 male participants who were paid $4.50 for
their time. Some were chosen to be teachers others
learners.
· Participants were told the experiment was about negative
reinforcement and learning
· The teacher was then given a electric shock of 45v to
show them that it was relatively painless, reassuring them
they would not hurt the learner.
· The teacher and the learner were in separate room and
the teacher asked the learner questions and if the learner
answered incorrectly the teacher gives the learner an
electric shock that increased from 15v to 450v…read more

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method
· If the teacher started to refuse to go on then verbal
prods were given by the experimenter (Mr. Williams)
who was dressed in a lab coat and in the same room as
the teacher.
· The experiment ended when the teacher refused to
continue after the 4th verbal prod or after 450v had
been given over 4 times…read more

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findings
· 65% of participants gave 450v
· 100% gave 300v
· Milgram concluded that obedience was due to
situational factors.…read more

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Evaluation- validity
· Poor ecological validity- the experiment was in a lab
creating an artificial setting so results can't be
generalised to real life.
· Poor population validity- only involved men so the
sample didn't represent the whole population as
women weren't included. Therefore results can only
be generalised to men
· If similar results from other obedience studies are
found, the Milgram findings can be generalised, such
as Hofling and Rank/Jacobsen…read more

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Evaluation- ethics
· Deception- lied about the true aim of the experiment
(active deception). This was necessary as if
participants knew the real aim of the experiment
they would have behaved differently due to demand
characteristics and this would have given invalid
results.
· Consent- due to deception participants couldn't give
their fully informed consent
· Right to withdraw- participants were not able to leave
the experiment when they wanted to due to the
verbal prods…read more

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