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Memory…read more

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· Capacity: 7 +/- 2
· Research: Jacobs (digit span technique) he
found the average number of items recalled
was between 5 and 9
· Duration: 18-30 seconds
· Research: 24 students to listen to a nonsense
triagram they then heard a random 3 digit
number and were asked to count backwards.
Recall was asked for every 3 seconds. Highest
recall was after 3 seconds- rapidly decreased
· Encoding : acoustic…read more

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· Capacity: unlimited
· Duration: lifetime
· Evidence : peterson and peterson ­ technique which
prevented rehearsal
· Encoding : semantic…read more

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· 3 stores- sensory, STM and LTM
·Information passes through each
store in a fixed sequence
·External stimuli first enter
sensory for a short time- before
either decay or rehearsal where it
goes to the STM which can hold
7+/- 2 . Material which is
rehearsed will go into the LTM
·Over simplified account. It views STM as a unitary store. The
WMM argues it has multiple components.
·Research has found that rehearsal is one of the least
effective ways of remembering information
·KF brain damage shows that only his STM was damaged and
his LTM was intact showing them as two separate stores…read more

Slide 5

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·Model of STM
·The central executive controls
the Phonological loop and the
visuo-spatial sketchpad.
·It decides which side is
required + coordinates retrieval
from the LTM
·Phonological loop has 2 parts-
phonological store and
articulary process .
·Brain scans have shown different areas as active
when verbal tasks are being carried out than visual.
This supports the idea of different parts of memory.
·Sees memory as an active process
·The role of the central executive is unclear
·The model only really explains STM…read more

Slide 6

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· Factors affecting EWT
· Misleading information: Loftus and Palmer ­ lab experiment 45 students
were shown 7 video clips of a car crash. They then had to answer questions.
One critical Q about how fast the cars were going when they hit each other
(1 group received this) the other 4 groups had the word hit replaced with
`collided' `smashed' `bumped' or `contacted'. Smashed received the highest
estimate whereas contacted received the lowest.
· Anxiety- yerkes Dodson hypothesis.
Weapon focus effect ­ the group who
witnessed the scene with a pen were less
anxious and able to remember more
than the group with the knife as they
concentrated more on the knife than the
· Age- old people have less accurate recall
than middle aged people + more prone to
misleading info. Cohen found that elderly
gave more inaccurate responses than
middle aged ppts when given misleading info. This was backed up by Loftus.…read more

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