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Psychology Revision Memory
Definitions within Memory
The mental process used to encode, store and retrieve information.
Encoding involves changing the information presented into a different form. Since words or other items in the
short term store are rehearsed or repeated, we might assume that they are encoded…
+ The findings have been usefully applied to improve memory (phone numbers etc). Memory improvement
techniques are based on the findings that digit span cannot be increased, but the size of the bits of
information can be this is what happens in chunking.
Encoding in STM (Conrad)
90% accuracy in face and name recognition (even with participants that had left high school 34 years ago)
After 48 years of leaving this accuracy of name recognition declined to 80% and for face recognition it was
Free recall was considerable less accurate 60% accurate after 15 years…
BUT we cannot control what goes on in peoples heads so it is impossible to know that no new information
was taken in
Also it lacks mundane realism as it is not representative of real life and only uses free recall.
This theory argues that when the capacity to…
Loftus and Palmer aimed to show that leading questions could distort eyewitness testimony accounts via the
cues provided in the question.
To test their hypothesis, Loftus and Palmer asked people to estimate the speed of motor vehicles using
different forms of questions after they observed a car accident. The estimation…
A final factor that may affect the reliability of eyewitness testimony is weapon focus. This is where the
eyewitness may not properly see the criminal as they are focused on the weapon rather than their face. This
will make it difficult to identify them.