Lungs, and Disease

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  • Created on: 05-08-09 15:43
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The Structure of the Human GasExchange System
All aerobic organisms require a constant supply of oxygen to release energy in the form of
ATP during respiration. The removal of carbon dioxide is necessary as carbon dioxide in large
amounts is harmful to the body.
Mammals need to absorb oxygen, and remove carbon dioxide because
They are very large organisms with a complex system of living cells.
They also maintain a high body temperature, and therefore have high respiratory
The lungs are supported, and protected by a bone called the _______________.
The lungs are complex structures that branch off into _______________ which end in tiny air
sacs called _______________.
The trachea is a flexible pathway supported by rings of _______________. This prevents the
trachea from collapsing as the air pressure falls (whilst breathing _____).
The tracheal walls are made from muscle lined with ciliated epithelium cells, and goblet cells.
The goblet cells produce a __________ that traps _______________, and __________ from the
air breathed in. The __________ moves the mucus which can contain _______________, and
__________ which then passes into the __________ to be digested.
These are the two divisions of the __________, each leading into one __________. The
bronchi are also supported by _______________ but as the bronchi get smaller, so does the
amount of cartilage that supports it.
These are the subdivisions of the __________. The are made of muscle lined with epithelial
cells which allows them to control the flow of __________, into and out of the
These are minute airsacs at the end of the _______________. They are _______________,
which allows them to stretch and expand to accommodate the air, whilst breathing _____.
When breathing _____, they expel the _______________ that is also breathed in from the air.
The Alveolar Membrane is the GasExchange surface.

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Below is a diagram of all the structures of the lung enlarged.
Recall the functions of the structures below.…read more

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The Mechanism of Breathing
When the air pressure of the atmosphere is greater than the air pressure inside the lungs, the
air is forced into the alveoli. This is called Inspiration.
When the air pressure of the atmosphere is lower than the air pressure inside the lungs, the
air is forced out of the alveoli. This is called Expiration.
The pressure changes are brought about by the movement of two muscles.
The _______________. This is a sheet of muscle separating the _______________,
from the _______________.…read more

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Pulmonary Ventilation
Pulmonary Ventilation The total volume of air moved into the lungs in one minute
Tidal Volume The total volume of air taken into the body when at rest.
Ventilation The number of breaths taken in one minute.
Units dm3min1
Pulmonary Ventilation: Tidal Volume × Ventilation Rate
(dm3min1) (dm3) (min1)
Below is a diagram showing the structures and how they react, when a person breathes in
and out.…read more

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Exchange of Gases in the Lungs
Essential features of exchange surfaces.
Large Surface Area to Volume surface area × difference in
Ratio concentration
length of diffusion path
Very Thin To allow selected materials to diffuse
e easily
Partially Permeable To speed up the rate of exchange
Ficks Law To keep the diffusion pathway short so
materials can cross more rapidly
Role of the Alveoli in Gas Exchange
Each alveolus is lined mostly with _______________ cells.…read more

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