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The Structure of the Human GasExchange System

All aerobic organisms require a constant supply of oxygen to release energy in the form of
ATP during respiration. The removal of carbon dioxide is necessary as carbon dioxide in large
amounts is harmful to the body.
Mammals need to absorb oxygen, and…

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Below is a diagram of all the structures of the lung enlarged.

Recall the functions of the structures below.

Ribcage Lungs Trachea Cartilage Goblet Cells

Cilia Bronchi Bronchioles Alveoli GasExchange

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The Mechanism of Breathing

When the air pressure of the atmosphere is greater than the air pressure inside the lungs, the
air is forced into the alveoli. This is called Inspiration.

When the air pressure of the atmosphere is lower than the air pressure inside the lungs, the
air is…

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Pulmonary Ventilation

Pulmonary Ventilation The total volume of air moved into the lungs in one minute
Tidal Volume The total volume of air taken into the body when at rest.
Ventilation The number of breaths taken in one minute.

Units dm3min1

Pulmonary Ventilation: Tidal Volume × Ventilation Rate
(dm3min1) (dm3)…

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Exchange of Gases in the Lungs

Essential features of exchange surfaces.

Large Surface Area to Volume surface area × difference in
Ratio concentration
length of diffusion path
Very Thin To allow selected materials to diffuse
e easily
Partially Permeable To speed up the rate of exchange

Ficks Law To keep…

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