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Life Changes and
Daily Hassles…read more

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Social readjustment rating scale
Holmes and Rahe (1967) developed a questionnaire called the Social
Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) to identify major stressful life events.
Each one of the 43 stressful life events was awarded a Life Change Unit
depending on how shocking it was felt to be by a large sample of participants.
A total value for stressful life events can be worked out by adding up the scores
for each event experienced over a 12 month period.
If a person has less the 150 life change units they have a 30% chance of
suffering from stress.
150 - 299 life change units equals to a 50% chance of suffering from stress.
Over 300 life units means a person has an 80% chance of developing a stress
related illness.…read more

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INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCE ­ The SRRS assumes that each stressor affects
people the same way. Not necessarily true e.g. divorce can be agreeable or
even a relief.
Most 43 life changes in the SRRS aren't everyday events.
Kanner et al (1981) has designed a Hassles Scale which are more common, e.g.
losing things, traffic jams, arguments, disappointments, weight and physical
appearance.…read more

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Sarason et al. (1978) created an alterative to the SRRS because they did not
believe that life changes necessarily had negative effects, as the SRRS assumed.
What's most important in the LES is how the life event is perceived.
A questionnaire with 57 questions, where life events were to be rated in terms
of positive and negative impacts.
Positive, negative and total LES scores were calculated.
Negative scores correlate more highly with health problems than positive or
total scores.
It takes individual differences into consideration.
Some people never experience the events indentified in the LES scale (cross).…read more

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Aim :The researchers wanted to know whether stress and illness were related to one and
Procedures : 2500 Male US sailors completed the SRRS (providing a total LCU score) and
were monitored for illness during a six month tour of duty.
The total score on the SRRS- life change score- was recorded for each participants.
Correlated with the sailors illness scores.
Findings :Higher total LCU scores correlated with higher rates of illness. This shows that
life events are related to an increase risk of illness.
The research is correlational, so there is the causality problem.
The correlation was very weak, so it is quite likely that if they replicated this study (i.e.
did it again) they would not find a correlation.
The sample was very limited (Navy personnel) so it would be difficult to generalise the
findings.…read more

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DeLongis et al (1982) created the Hassles and Uplifts scale (HSUP) this was
used to measure a person's attitude and reaction to a daily situation. This
concentrates on the daily events of a person's life rather than the rare life
changes they can experience.
Example of part of the HSUP: (Participant can circle 1 or both options)
Daily hassles Event Daily uplifts
0 1 2 3 Time spent with family 3 2 1 0
0 1 2 3 Your physical appearance 3 2 1 0
0 1 2 3 The weather 3 2 1 0
0 1 2 3 Pets 3 2 1 0
0 1 2 3 Social Commitments 3 2 1 0…read more

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