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What is needed for a reaction?
· Collisions between particles with enough energy to break bonds
· The orientation of the particles matter
· Most collisions between molecules or particles do not lead to a
reaction. They either do not have enough energy or wrong
orientation…read more

Slide 3

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Increasing the rate of a reaction
· Increasing the Temperature: Increases the speed of molecules which
increased their energy and in turn the number of collisions
· Increasing the Concentration: More particles present, collisions are more
likely therefore the reaction rate increases. However as the reaction
proceeds reactants gets used up, the concentration decreases, so the rate
of reaction decreases and the reaction occurs.
· Increasing the Pressure of a GAS reaction: More particles in a given volume
so collisions are more likely
· Increasing the Surface Area of a solid reaction: More particles available to
collide as there are more sites for a reaction.
· Using a Catalyst: Changes the rate of a reaction without being chemically
changed itself…read more

Slide 4

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Transition State
Some bonds are
Activation Energy, Ea being broken, some
are being made.
Very unstable
· Activation energy is the
Exothermic Reaction
minimum energy particles need
for a reaction to begin.
· Large Ea means a reaction rate is
slow as less particles have the
minimum energy to react
· Low Ea means a reaction rate is
fast as more particles will have
the activation energy and can
therefore react…read more

Slide 5

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Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution
The distribution of energy amongst particles
Higher Temperature
Most probable energy · The peak is lower and moves to the
Particles right as shown by the green curve.
Average energy with the
· The number of particles with high
activation energy increases
Activation energy
Energy · The total area under the curve is the
same for every temperature because
its equal to the total number of
particles
· Higher temperature means more
particles have more than the
activation energy so collision
frequency increases…read more

Slide 6

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Catalysts provides an alternative pathway for a
reaction with a lower activation energy
Catalysts · They do not affect the position of equilibrium
nor the enthalpy change
Homogenous Heterogeneous
Esterification- H+ Haber Process- iron
Homogenous- Ostwald Process- platinum
Activation Catalyst is in the same Hardening fats with H-
Energy with phase/state as the nickel
a catalyst Activation energy reactants
without a catalyst Cracking- zeolite
Heterogeneous- Catalytic Converter-
Catalyst is in a different platinum
phase to the reactants Hydration of ethane to
ethanol-phosphoric acid…read more

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