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Naming organic compounds
be able to apply IUPAC rules for nomenclature not only to the simple organic compounds, limited to chains
with up to 6 carbon atoms, met at AS, but also to benzene and the functional groups listed in this unit
Type of compound Structure of group Example
Carboxylate salt O H
O
C H C C
-
+ - +
O Na O Na
H
O H
Acyl choride C O
H C C
Cl
Cl
H
O O
C CH3 C
acid…read more

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E-Z isomerism and optical isomerism are forms of stereoisomerism
isomerism
structural
stereoisomerism
isomerism
positional chain functional geometrical optical
know that an asymmetric carbon atom is chiral and gives rise to optical isomers which exist
as non super-imposable mirror images and differ only in their effect on plane polarised light
Optical Isomerism
arises due to an
asymmetric
carbon atom, with
a chiral centre.
Optical isomers show identical physical and
chemical properties however DIFFER in
their effect on plane polarised light.…read more

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Appreciate that drug action may be determined by the stereochemistry of the
molecule and that different optical isomers may have very different effects
SAFE
NOT SAFE
understand the meaning of the terms enantiomer and racemate
Enatiomer
These are optical isomers. They have the same
molecular and structural formula but different
arrangement in space.…read more

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Name organic compounds involving all the functional groups introduced at AS level
and also secondary and tertiary amines, quartenary ammonium salts, acid chlorides, acid
anhydrides, amides, esters and N-substituted amides, and simple organic compounds
involving two functional groups (such as amino acids)
b) Define the terms chiral, optical isomer (enantiomer) and racemate, draw and
recognise enantiomers and explain how they are distinguished, understand why some
reactions produce racemates rather than single enantiomers, and explain why optical
isomers of drugs may have very different effects
Common…read more

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Isomerism…read more

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