First 160 words of the document:
Investigating Populations and Abiotic Factors
Abiotic Factor Measurement technique
Solar Energy Input Using a light metre/sensor
Climate Rainfall and temperature can be
obtained from published records.
Thermometers and rain gauges can be
used. An electronic hygrometer can
Topography Topographical surveys measure the
shape of the land. Surveyors levelling
equipment can be used the simplest
method being to use ranging poles and
Oxygen Availability Oxygen probe or sensor
pH Indicator liquid or electronic pH
Minerals Gardeners test kits can test the levels
of nutrients e.g. nitrates
Water (moisture content) Soil samples can be weighed, dried
slowly in an oven and reweighed to
give the mass of water.
Organic matter Dry soil samples can be weighed, burnt
in a crucible and reweighed any organic
matter is burnt off.
Other pages in this set
Here's a taster:
Soil texture Soil texture charts show if the soil is
mainly clay, silt or sand.
After choosing an area to sample you need to choose random samples to avoid bias. Repeating the process will also improve reliability.
FRAME QUADRATS: these square frames are placed on the ground at random points (this can be done by selecting random coordinates.)
Number of individuals can be counted or the percentage cover can be measured (quicker.…read more