INFO 2 ICT by Joshua Bryant

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ICT systems and there components
What is ICT? ICT is the use of input, processing, storage and transfer of data and the output of
Input, process and Output:
Data is entered via an input device such as a barcode reader
Calculations and queries are performed on the data through the processing stage (e.g.
the barcode is being processed into human readable form)
Output the data is no information the data is meaningful (the price of the product is
shown and various other information for example what the product is)
What is an ICT system? ICT systems are were the data that has been processed is either sent
to a human being or to another ICT system (example they are used is shops when the receipt is
produced the ICT system will notify the system on what has been sold and the remaining stock
e.g. someone buys a pair of trainers and a message is sent saying the stock is running low)
Organisations use ICT systems as it's a far more reliable and quicker way of doing it paper
based also computers can check stock and prices automatically.
Components of an ICT system: The six components are:
Hardware: Hardware is thing you can touch and are used along side with your computer the
main components are
Input devices (Mouse, keyboard, scanner, barcode reader etc...)
Processors e.g. CPU
Output Devices, e.g. printer, speaker, monitor etc...
Ports and cables, e.g. parallel, serial, universal serial bus (USB)
Storage Device e.g. external hard drive, rewriteable CD and memory sticks
Software: Software is a collection of instructions that can be run on a computer. They tell the
computer what to do an example of ICT software is Windows 7 or Mac osx.

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Procedures: Organisations have a governed code which makes sure the employee's use the ICT
system in the correct way. All laws and legist rations have to be taken into account when using
ICT systems. These include the Data protection act, Computer Misuse Act, the copyright,
designs and information act
Information: Information is Data that has been processed into something that is meaningful.…read more

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ICT systems: System software is a set of programs that act together to allow the hardware and
the application programs to work. ICT systems that are used by organisations have been
designed to be used by people and commissioned for a particular purpose. Key factors that have
to be taken into account when considering a new system include:
Ensuring the cost of the changes is worth the benefits it will bring
Timescales for implementation. These must be realistic and allow time for thorough
testing.…read more

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Some benefits and limitations of user interfaces:
Graphical user interface (GUI) Friendly easy to use but can be frustrating for advanced
users. The negative is that the take up a lot of hard disk space and memory
CommandLine interfaces (CLI) Good for expert users also they don't use a lot of
system resources
Menu driven interfaces (MDI) Are easy to use but for people who know what they want
to choose this can be time consuming and frustrating.…read more

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Servers are connected to one or more
network switches, which look like hubs. They improve network performance.
Network switch: Hardware device that joins multiple computers together at the data link
network protocol layer
The Internet: The Internet is the ultimate WAN it is a vast network of networks. The Internet is
available in almost every country in the world and has allowed users to communicate with other
users anywhere in the world by using things like email.…read more

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Security attack: Any action that compromises the security of data held by the organisation.
Procedures can be taken:
For example always lock your computer when your not using it
Data protection Act 1998: The data protection act regulates how personal data is used and
protects data subjects from the misuse of their personal data.…read more

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Improved accessibility of information and services: Websites have meant information can be
accessed 24hrs a day and can be updated 24hrs a day. Education has benefited hugely as
previously students may have to go to the library to gather certain information now books and
information can be accessed online. BBC news website allows for users to get a live weather
feed by typing in their area.…read more


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