How to deliver an interactive lesson

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How to make an effective presentation
10. Methods
If we promote learning by doing and participating in the doing, how do you make
presentations interactive? You can see from the example given above how a group
might get involved in discussion. Some more approaches are set out below ­ try
them out!
10.1 Brainstorming
Brainstorming is a wellknown and widelyused interactive method. It encourages
participants to use their imaginations and be creative. It helps elicit numerous
answers to any given question or solutions to any given problem (for example: What
laws do you know? How can we overcome this obstacle?)
1. Seat participants informally.
2. Provide a flip chart pad or blackboard for recording ideas.
3. Ask the question or state the problem to be addressed.
4. State the ground rules (see below).
5. Ask for ideas and record then as fast as they come. Do not edit.
6. If using chart paper, hang it on the wall when each page is finished.
7. Encourage new ideas by adding your own.
8. Discourage derisive laughter, comments or ridicule of any ideas.
9. Continue as long as the ideas keep coming.
10. At the conclusion, discuss and evaluate the ideas generated.
11. Produce a list of generic outcomes from suggestions received.
Rules for brainstorming:

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No evaluation of any kind is allowed in a `thinkingup' session. If you judge
and evaluate ideas as they are expressed, people will focus more on
defending their ideas than on thinking up new and better ones. Evaluation
must be ruled out.
2. Everyone is encouraged to `thinkup' as many ideas as possible. Wild ideas
should be encouraged.…read more

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The P.R.E.S. method
PRES provides a format useful in conducting controversial issue discussions,
`takeastand' activities and other public policy lessons.
The method provides students with a simple format in lessons where arguments or
opinions need to be developed. It helps them to clarify their thoughts and articulate
and present their opinions clearly and concisely.
1. Distribute a handout stating the four steps in the PRES method:
P State your point of view.
R Give one reason for your point of view.…read more

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Clarify the steps and answer any questions. Give an example of each step.
An example of the formula is:
P I am opposed to people smoking inside.
R Smoking is unhealthy for the smoker as well as the
nonsmokers in the room.
E Research has shown that secondhand smoke causes
S Therefore, I am opposed to people smoking inside.
3. Ask for volunteers to try to use the steps with any subject they choose.
4. Check for understanding.
5.…read more

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Smallgroup activities enable students to learn skills of cooperation and other
important interpersonal skills. These activities can also help students learn to
resolve differences among themselves.…read more

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1. Introducing group work
Start group work slowly. Assign students to be part of a small group. You may wish
to add a facilitator to each group. Assign each member a specific assignment for the
group work. The facilitator should encourage group interaction, not direct it. The
teacher should monitor the progress of the small group. Student rôles in small
groups can include: recorder, reporter, questioner, restater, observer.…read more

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Be sure to provide extra assistance to those students who have trouble
functioning in small groups. As students master working in pairs move to
three students in a group and gradually add more students. Avoid having
more than five people in a small group.
2. Group Size
As the size of the group increases, the range of ability, expertise and skills
increases. The likelihood of having someone who has special knowledge that
will be helpful to the group task is greater.…read more

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Groups of five
This group represents the most satisfying learning group size. The 2:3
division provides minority members' support. It is large enough for
stimulation, yet small enough for participation and personal recognition.
3. Common problems ­
Typical problems that groups face and that teachers and observers should
look for include:
Respect for rights and opinions of others. Does everyone in the group get
a fair hearing?
Willingness to compromise and to cooperate.…read more

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Be explicit in dealing with management issues within the groups. If someone
must report back to the class on the group's work, be sure there is a fair process
for selecting the reporter.
1. Circulate and observe/ evaluate what is occurring in the groups. When you stop
to visit a group, don't take it over. Think about your rôle in such a situation.
2. Think about how the students are seated ­ they must be able to see the others
10.…read more

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The elements of a case
-- FACTS -- What happened in this case? Who are the parties? What facts
are important? Unimportant? Are any significant facts missing?
-- ISSUE(S)-- What is (are) the legal question(s) on which the resolution of
this case turns? Or, what are the public policy issues, values in conflict and/ or practical
-- ARGUMENTS -- Students are asked either to identify from the case materials,
or to determine, the legal and policy arguments available to both sides in the case.…read more


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