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How to make an effective presentation
10. Methods

If we promote learning by doing and participating in the doing, how do you make
presentations interactive? You can see from the example given above how a group
might get involved in discussion. Some more approaches are set out below ­ try…

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1. No evaluation of any kind is allowed in a `thinkingup' session. If you judge
and evaluate ideas as they are expressed, people will focus more on
defending their ideas than on thinking up new and better ones. Evaluation
must be ruled out.

2. Everyone is encouraged to `thinkup' as…

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10.2 The P.R.E.S. method

PRES provides a format useful in conducting controversial issue discussions,
`takeastand' activities and other public policy lessons.


The method provides students with a simple format in lessons where arguments or
opinions need to be developed. It helps them to clarify their thoughts and articulate

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2. Clarify the steps and answer any questions. Give an example of each step.
An example of the formula is:

P I am opposed to people smoking inside.
R Smoking is unhealthy for the smoker as well as the
nonsmokers in the room.
E Research has shown that secondhand smoke…

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Smallgroup activities enable students to learn skills of cooperation and other
important interpersonal skills. These activities can also help students learn to
resolve differences among themselves.

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1. Introducing group work

Start group work slowly. Assign students to be part of a small group. You may wish
to add a facilitator to each group. Assign each member a specific assignment for the
group work. The facilitator should encourage group interaction, not direct it. The
teacher should…

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Be sure to provide extra assistance to those students who have trouble
functioning in small groups. As students master working in pairs move to
three students in a group and gradually add more students. Avoid having
more than five people in a small group.

2. Group Size

As the size…

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Groups of five

This group represents the most satisfying learning group size. The 2:3
division provides minority members' support. It is large enough for
stimulation, yet small enough for participation and personal recognition.

3. Common problems ­

Typical problems that groups face and that teachers and observers should
look for…

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6. Be explicit in dealing with management issues within the groups. If someone
must report back to the class on the group's work, be sure there is a fair process
for selecting the reporter.

1. Circulate and observe/ evaluate what is occurring in the groups. When you stop
to visit…

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1. The elements of a case

-- FACTS -- What happened in this case? Who are the parties? What facts
are important? Unimportant? Are any significant facts missing?

-- ISSUE(S)-- What is (are) the legal question(s) on which the resolution of
this case turns? Or, what are the public policy…


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