First 467 words of the document:
How Science has challenged the Design Argument
(i) Theory of Big Bang and QM suggests that the Universe was not intentional
design or creation by God but chance
It could have been a `chance quantum fluctuation of the vacuum' that led to
an explosion from an infinitely dense singularity. HUP states that we cannot
simultaneously know the energy content and position of a particle; if we are
very sure about the position of a particle, the energy content becomes very
unsure. Energy can therefore appear out of nothing, and subsequently so can
God is not required to account for the beginning of the Universe.
(ii) The theory of evolution is widely accepted as the best explanation for the
origin and diversity of all living organisms
Well supported by the fossil record and the study of genetics
As a selfcontained and selfsupported hypothesis it is a superior hypothesis to
the God hypothesis.
God is not required to account for the appearance of design amongst
(iii) The theory of evolution challenges the belief that man is a unique design
We are simply an evolved form of ape and we share a common ancestry with
all other living organisms, around 4 million years ago.
Dawkins: we are merely "survival suits" for our "selfish genes" (The Selfish
Our moral, spiritual and aesthetic senses can all be explained in terms of
evolutionary biology. Humans are not special; in nature, only genes serve a
(iv) Doesn't fit with an omnibenevolent God
Evolution through natural selection is a cruel and wasteful process.
The Big Bang was a massively violent and chaotic event.
(v) Evolution is `blind'
It is driven by random genetic mutations; it has no ultimate aim or goal in
This is hard to reconcile with the doctrine of an omnibenevolent God who has
a purpose in mind.
Dawkins: The Blind Watchmaker
Genecentred evolution can adequately account for the origin of life without
the need for God. Such as God "must already have been vastly complex in the
first place for which there is no explanation!"
Evolution can better explain how organisms made it up `mount improbable'.
Any design is apparent rather than real.
(vi) Science is materialistic and based on empirically verifiable facts
It is only reasonable to believe in things for which there is sufficient empirical
God is by definition unknowable and untestable, so belief in Him is irrational
Reality consists solely of this empirical world. The Universe is just a `brute