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Group 1 elements
The Alkali Metals…read more

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Group 1 elements
Symbol Electron configuration
lithium Li [He]2s1
sodium Na [Ne]3s1
potassium K [Ar]4s1
rubidium Rb [Kr]5s1
caesium Cs [Xe]6s1
francium Fr [Rn]7s1…read more

Slide 3

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· Lithium was discovered by Arfvedson in 1817
· Sodium was isolated by Sir Humphry Davy in 1807 in London, by the
electrolysis of molten sodium hydroxide.
· Potassium was discovered by Sir Humphry Davy in 1807 in London, by
the electrolysis of potassium hydroxide (potash). This was the first
metal to be isolated by electrolysis.
· Rubidium was discovered in 1861 by R.W. Bunsen and G. Kirchhoff in
Heidelberg, Germany, by spectroscopic examination of the mineral
· Caesium was discovered by R. Bunsen and G.R. Kirchhoff in 1860 in
Heidelberg, Germany.
· Francium was discovered by Marguerite Perey in 1939 at the Curie
Institute, Paris.…read more

Slide 4

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Lithium has a silvery appearance but quickly becomes covered
by a film of black oxide when exposed to air. It is usually
stored immersed in an inert oil.
Sodium is a soft, silvery-white metal which is generally stored in
paraffin, as it oxidises rapidly when cut.
Potassium is a soft, white metal which is silvery when cut but
which rapidly oxidises.
Rubidium is a very soft, silvery-white metal with a lustre when
Caesium is silvery-white, soft and ductile. It is liquid at room
Francium is metallic and cubic and a decay of actinium. It is a
highly radioactive metal.…read more

Slide 5

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Lithium does not occur
free in nature, but is Source Caesium is found in the
minerals pollucite and
found combined in small lepidolite. Pollucite is found
amounts in nearly all Potassium is the seventh in great quantities at Bernic
igneous rocks and in the most abundant metal and Lake, Manitoba, Canada and
waters of many mineral makes up 2.4% by mass of in the USA, and from this
springs. the Earth's crust. Most source the element can be
minerals containing prepared. However, most
potassium are soluble and commercial production is as a
Sodium is the sixth most the metal is difficult to by-product of lithium
abundant element on obtain from them. production.
Earth, and comprises 2.6% Potassium is also found in
of the Earth's crust. The the ocean in small amounts.
most common compound Francium occurs as a result
is sodium chloride, but it Rubidium is the twenty- of the alpha disintegration
also occurs in many third most abundant of actinium, which is
minerals. It is never found element in the Earth's crust. obtained from the neutron
free in nature, due to its Potassium minerals and bombardment of radium. It
great reactivity. It is brines also contain this can also be made artificially
obtained commercially by element and are a further by bombarding thorium
the electrolysis of dry commercial source. with protons.
molten sodium chloride.…read more

Slide 6

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Lithium has the highest heat capacity of any solid element, and is
therefore used in many heat transfer applications. However, it is
corrosive and requires special handling. It is used as an alloying agent,
in the synthesis of organic compounds, and has applications in the
nuclear industry. It has a high electrochemical potential so is one of
the most widely used battery anode materials. Lithium is also used in
special glasses and ceramics.
Metallic sodium is used in the manufacture of sodamide and esters, and
in the preparation of certain organic compounds. Other uses of the
metal include descaling and purifying metals, and alloy formation. One
alloy of sodium with potassium is an important heat transfer agent.
Sodium compounds are important in several industries, including
paper, glass, soap, textile, petroleum and metal. Salt is also of vital
nutritional importance.…read more

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