Geography Case Studies:)

This document contains most of the case studies for your geography exam on monday 14 june 2010. Hope u find it useful:) Good luck in your exam:D

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Arwa Eljreiby
GY11 Geography case studies
Rivers
Hydrological cycle: A hydrological cycle shows how water is taken around an area.
Rural-urban comparisons: The concrete and tarmac in urban areas prevent water from soaking
In which encourages overland flow. In a rural area, the soil lets water penetrate the surface.
Also, the trees take in water from the soil and the leaves prevent a lot of water from going on
the ground.
Hydrographs: A hydrograph shows the level of water in a river over a period of time. A storm
hydrograph is plotted after a rainstorm to see the effect of that rainstorm on a river.
Types of erosion:
Abrasion: This is when rock fragments scrape against the river bank and bed as it is
carried by the river. This widens and deepens the river.
Attrition: This is when particles being carried along by the river are broken down as they
hit the river bed and river bank which eventually causes them to become smaller and
rounder.
Solution: This is a chemical process in which the weak acid in the river reacts with the
minerals that make up the soil and rocks in the river and dissolves them.
Hydraulic Acid: This is when the force from the current in the river smashes against the
river bed and river bank and causes the rocks and particles to brake off into pieces.
Transportation:
Saltation load: When the river transports material (the load) along.
Traction/Bedload: It is when large particles like boulders are rolled along the river bed.
Solution: Material which has been dissolved in the river is transported along.
Suspension: Light and small materials are carried by the river's current.
River features:
Upper course:
Waterfalls
Rapids
Large , angular bedload
Potholes in bare rock bed
Steep gradient
V-shaped valley
Interlocking spurs

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Arwa Eljreiby
GY11 Geography case studies
Middle course:
Narrow floodplain Small meanders
Moderate gradient
Lower course:
More winding meanders
Wide floodplain
Gentle gradient
Leves, ox-bow lakes
Case study: Bangladesh (LEDC)
Causes:
Melting snow in the Himalayas which added water to the rivers flowing through
Bangladesh.
More than half of Bangladesh is 5 metres or less above sea level.
Deforestation in the Himalayan foothills.
Bangladesh is in great debt so not enough money for flood protection/defences.…read more

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Arwa Eljreiby
GY11 Geography case studies
130 million cattle were killed.
Two-thirds of the country became flooded.
23.5 people lost their homes and became homeless.
Farmers' crops were destroyed and so they were affected.
More than 1000 schools were damaged.
11 000 km of roads were destroyed.
Water supplies were contaminated.
Build up of waste caused hygiene problems.
Lots of health problems arose and needed attention.
Communication links were damaged and so not much help could be gained.…read more

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Arwa Eljreiby
GY11 Geography case studies
Case study: Flooding in the Netherlands (MEDC)
Natural Causes:
Heavy rainfall caused the River Rhine to overflow.
Snow melted early and quickly in the Alps.
The ground wasn't able to take in anymore water so further rain was transferred to
rivers as overland flow.
Human Causes:
A lot of the marsh and floodplains around the river Rhine were used for farmland or
buildings causing less water to be held back from going into the river.…read more

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Arwa Eljreiby
GY11 Geography case studies
4 people died.
Some roads became un-usable.
Many protective dykes were made of sand and clay which became affected due to the
high levels of water over a long period of time. They became more likely to collapse so
more work had to b carried out on them to reinforce them.
250,000 people were evacuated.
Many homes were flooded.
Greenhouses were flooded and so flowers, fruits and vegetables were lost.…read more

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Arwa Eljreiby
GY11 Geography case studies
Case Study: Comparison of Africa with the UK
Locations:
Burkina Faso in Central Africa ­ dry landlocked savanna environment. Main areas affected
are Ouagadougou and Po.
United Kingdom.
Access to amenities:
Less than 50% of people in Burkina have access to healthcare compared to the UK's
100%. One reason for this may be because a lot of the population in Burkina Faso are
not educated enough to become doctors etc. to provide healthcare for others.…read more

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Arwa Eljreiby
GY11 Geography case studies
The unreliable rain in Burkina Faso threatens agricultural production. This causes
problems for families who grow their own crops to eat because they can't either afford
or gain access to food.
Other information:
The urban population in Burkina Faso is 18% and in the UK it is 90%.
Life expectancy in Burkina Faso is 48 years but in the UK it is 77 years.
Plate Tectonics
What: Plate tectonics is the theory that describes the movement of tectonic plates.…read more

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Arwa Eljreiby
GY11 Geography case studies
Badly built buildings in the LEDCs will cause them to collapse more so more will be left
homeless.
The government in MEDCs will have more money to spend on food and shelter for
those affected and they will fix the city faster.
How to prepare for plate tectonic activity: People living in areas that are prone to natural
disasters should keep a survival kit including food, first aid kits and water.…read more

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Arwa Eljreiby
GY11 Geography case studies
Case Study: Volcano
Name: Mount St Helens
Where: Rocky Mountain fold mountain range in North America, Washington
When: 18th May 1980
Why: The volcano was on top of a convergent plate boundary.
How: The Juan de Fuca plate, which is the oceanic crust, moved east and collided with the North
American plate which is the continental crust.…read more

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Arwa Eljreiby
GY11 Geography case studies
15. The cost of the damage and destruction was estimated at $1.1 billion.
16. Tourism was initially affected so the amount of tourists and visitors decreased.…read more

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