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AQA Physics Unit 1 ­ Key Points
ENERGY TRANSFER BY HEATING
1.1 Infrared radiation
Infrared radiation is energy transfer by electromagnetic waves.
All objects emit infrared radiation.
The hotter an object is, the more infrared radiation it emits in a given time.

1.2 Surfaces and radiation
Dark, matt surfaces emit…

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Its mass
Its specific heat capacity
Storage heaters use off-peak electricity to store energy in special bricks.

1.9 Heating and insulating buildings
Energy transfer from our homes can be reduced by fitting:
Loft insulation
Cavity wall insulation
Double glazing
Draught proofing
Aluminium foil behind radiators
U-values tell us how much…

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P= E
t
Efficiency = useful power out
total power in (x 100%)

3.3 Using electrical energy
The kilo-watt hour is the energy supplied to a 1 kW appliance in 1 hour.
E=Pxt
Total cost = number of kWh used x cost per kWh

3.4 Cost effectiveness matters
Cost effectiveness…

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Gas-fired power stations and pumped-storage stations can meet variations in demand.
Nuclear, coal and oil power stations can meet base-load demand.
Nuclear power stations, fossil-fuel power stations using carbon capture and renewable energy are
all likely to contribute to future energy supplies.

WAVES
5.1 The nature of waves
We use…

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The loudness of a note increases if the amplitude of the sound waves increases.
Vibrations created in an instrument when it is played produce sound waves.

ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES
6.1 The electromagnetic spectrum
The electromagnetic spectrum (in order of decreasing wavelength, increasing frequency and
energy) is:
radio waves
microwaves
infrared radiation…

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