GCSE- Additional Physics (AQA) Summary Notes

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Science Physics Year 11
Becky Grimbley| Year 11
Contents
Motion:
Speed and Acceleration
Speed isn't everything
Velocity Time Graphs-
Calculating the area under a velocity time graph
Speeding Up and Down:
Acceleration -Speeding up
Forces between objects
Friction
Resultant force -
On The Road-
Falling Objects
Energy,Work and Momentum:
Energy and work...............................................................................................................................................................4
Kinetic energy-
Momentum-
Changing momentum
Static Electricity:
Electric Current
Uses of Static Electricity
Electrostatic Precipitator..................................................................................................................................................5
Dangers of Static Electricity-
Electric Circuits
Series and Parallel circuits...............................................................................................................................................6
Resistance ( )
Mains Electricity:
The Plug............................................................................................................................................................................7
Energy in circuits-Power (W) (j/s)
Energy in circuits-Current (A)
Energy in circuits-Energy Transferred (J)

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A.C and D.C
Nuclear Physics:
Properties of sub-atomic particles
Isotopes
Radioactive Decay
Background Radiation ­
Discovery of the Nucleus
Nuclear Fission-
Nuclear Fusion
Motion
Speed and Acceleration
Total Distance (m)
Speed ( m
s)= Total time (s)
Distance- Time graphs-Showing objects moving at steady pace/stationary
If an object is stationary the line is horizontal.
If moving at a steady speed the line is sloped.
Also the steeper the line, the faster the speed of the object. Blue is travelling faster
than the red.…read more

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Change in V elocity ( m
s)
Acceleraton (m/s2) Time (s)
V ­ Final Velocity
U- Start Velocity
T-Time
V-U ­Change in Velocity
Example: A sprinter starts at the velocity of 5m/s & accelerates to 20m/s taking 3 seconds
20-5 = 5m/ss
5
Speeding Up & Down
Forces between objects
Measured in Newton's (N)
Two stationary objects are leaning against each other-Forces are equal
Friction
Two object interacting, always exert equal & opposite forced on each other
Resultant force (N) - Objects may have several…read more

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As things fall they experience an upward force called air resistance (drag)
Work, energy and momentum
Energy and Work- When a force moves an object, energy is transferred & work is done
Work is done whenever a force moves something.…read more

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When a force acts on an object that is moving, or able to move the momentum changes:
F orce (N ) =Change in momentum
Time taken (s)
Safety features in cars are designed to absorb kinetic energy in a crash.
Crumples zones fold in a collision, increasing impact time so reduces the force on the car & people in it.…read more

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Dangers of Static Electricity- A charged conductor can be discharged by connecting it to the earth with
a metal
Static Electricity is on a petrol tanker from the friction of tyre on road
When filling underground tanker with petrol static electricity build up through the pipe
Metal straps are connected to tank & underground tank to earth
Electric Circuits ­ circuit diagrams show how components are connected together
Diode- Allows current to
flow in one direction Open Switch- enables current to Lamp- emits light when…read more

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The resistance decreases as the temperature rises
Thermistor
The resistance decrease if the light intensity increase
LDR
Mains Electricity
The Plug
BLue=Neutral
BRown= Live
Green/yellow= Earth
The features of a plug are:
Copper wire- it's a good conductor
Surrounded by flexible plastic,-good insulator
Case made from tough plastic or rubber- good electrical insulators.
Pins are brass- good conductor.…read more

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C urrent (A) = Charge (C) Q
Time (s) OR I × T
Energy in circuits-Energy Transferred (J) - amount of energy transformed increases as the p.d
increases.
Energy transferred(J ) = P .d (V )×Charge(C )ORV E
×C
A.C and D.C
Cells/Batteries supply current that flows in one direction (d.c)
Batteries & cells supply D.C. electricity,
The diagram shows an oscilloscope screen displaying the signal from a D.C. supply.
.
Main supply is an alternating current (a.c) constantly changing direction.
UK a.…read more

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Symbol 1 proton, 0 1 proton, 1 neutron, 1 1 proton, 2 neutrons, 1
neutron, 1 electron electron
electron
Radioactive Decay-If atoms emit alpha/beta radiation, its nucleus changes. It becomes the nucleus of a
different element because the number of protons in the nucleus determines which element the atom is.
Relative mass-Atomic weight (how much an atom weights)
Atomic number- Total protons
Mass number- Total protons & neutrons
particle Structure Relative Charg C P When emitted..…read more

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Discovery of the Nucleus
The atom was imagined to be a sphere of positive charge with negatively charged
electrons dotted around inside it like plums in a pudding.
An experiment carried out in 1905 showed that the plum pudding model could not be
correct.…read more

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