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Bruce (2000)
· Fundamentalism =
reaction to modernization
social life becomes Egalitarianism
increasingly fragmented
members of society
share certain rights
religious life is
separated from other social life is planned to
aspects of social life, achieve certain goals, &
such as the economy not based upon faith or
prayer…read more

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Modernization challenges the authority of religion
· Sometimes groups with strong religious beliefs will try to defend their
religion against the perceived threat
......is a rational response of traditionally religious people
......evolved because of social, political & economic changes
......that downgrade & constrain the role of religion
The main cause of religious
fundamentalism is the belief of
religious traditionalists that the
world around them has
Bruce changed so as to threaten their
ability to reproduce themselves
& their tradition…read more

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Causes of Fundamentalism…read more

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Single Sacred text
· Hinduism is a diverse religion
with many Gods & no single
sacred text Communications:
= more difficult for movement to · Opportunities for fundamentalists to
organize & spread their message
claim `true' nature of the
· `Demonstration effect' or copy-cat
religion behaviours
Example: Qur'an and the Bible
· New Christian Right ­ own TV station
· Islamic fundamentalists ­ internet
Common enemy: websites
· Group believes it has a common
external enemy
· Group is united through hostility to
a common enemy
· Islamic fundamentalists united by
hostility to USA…read more

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· Many people are displaced = resentment
· Minorities in a country can feel their
religion & traditions are under threat
· Palestinians after the creation on Israel in
Economic Problems: Western Imperialism:
·Recessions, unemployment, ·Control & influence Nationalist
inflation, strikes & famine movements against Western
= grievances in society
Contrary to this, how could economic ·1967 ­ Palestinians against Israel
problems reduce fundamentalism? ·1979 ­ Iranian revolution against the
·Fundamentalists in political power are (pro-American)
blamed for economic problems
(E.g. Turkey, Sudan & Iran)…read more

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