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AMELIAS MINI
REVISION GUIDE
CELLS
MICROSCOPES:
There are two main types of microscopes: Light and Electron
Electron Micrographs- shown in colour

LIGHT ELECTRON


Uses beam of light Transmission Electron Scanning Electron
Magnification = x1500 Microscope (TEM) Microscope (SEM)
Resolution = 200 nm
Wide range of
specimens can be used
Samples…

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MEASUREMENTS:
MICROMETRE = µm
NANOMETRE = nm
1 cm 10, 000 µm
1 cm 10, 000, 000 nm
1 mm 1000 µm
1 mm 1, 000, 000 nm
1 µm 1000 nm

MAGNIFICATION: SIZE…

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Ribosome = 20 nm
Virus = 40 ­ 100 nm

RESOLUTION:
The ability to distinguish between two separate points

CELL ORGANELLES:

ORGANELLE STRUCTURE FUNCTION

Nucleus · Largest organelle with: · Chromatin made from protein and
· Chromatin DNA
· Nuclear envelope (double · Controls cell activities
membrane) · Nucleolus makes…

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Mitochondrion · Double membrane · ATP produced during aerobic
· Cristae (folded) respiration
· Matrix (central part) · ATP is universal carrier energy




· Consist of two subunits · Protein synthesis occur
(large and small) · Coded information (mRNA) is used to
· Found in cytoplasm assemble protein from amino…

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Golgi Apparatus · Stack of membrane bound · Receives and modifies proteins from
sacs ER
· Packages modified protein into
vesicles to be transported
· Makes lysosomes
· Produces secretory enzymes




Vesicle · Small fluid sac in cytoplasm · Transports substances in and out cell
with membrane · Formed at…

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· Small, hair-like structures · Microtubules allow cilia to move
· Have ring of 9 pairs of · Movement is used by cell to move
protein microtubules substances along cell surface
inside
· Have 2 pairs of
microtubules in the middle




Cilia

Flagellum (undulipodia) · Like cilia, but longer ·…

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· Double membrane · Chlorophyll molecules present
· Thylakoid (flattened · Site for photosynthesis
membrane sac) · Grana- carries out light dependent
· Grana (stack of thylakoids) stage of photosynthesis
· Lamella (thin, flat pieces of
thylakoids)




Chloroplast

Vacuole · Filled with cell sap · Keeps plant supported, rigid and…

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Have true nucleus No nucleus ­ free in cytoplasm

DNA is linear DNA is circular (loop)- plasmid

Membrane bound organelles Only one cell surface membrane

No cell wall, cellulose (in plant cells) Cell wall made of "peptidoglycan"

Larger ribosomes Smaller ribosomes

Mitochondrion Mesosome




FUNCTIONS:
· To separate cell contents from…

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