Fractional Distillation of Crude Oil

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Fractional Distillation of Crude Oil
Crude oil is a fossil fuel
It is a mixture of different hydrocarbons
It is non-renewable as it takes a very long time to
make and is used up faster than it is made.
Oil is drilled down underground in an oil rig and is
passed through into a fractioning plant.
Crude oil is useless for any use so it is changed into
these other products as they are useful.
Crude oil is separated through fractional distillation:
1. The oil is heated until most of it has turned into gas
2. The gases enter the fractioning column
3. The temperature gradient inside determines where the hydrocarbons go.
4. Longer hydrocarbons have high boiling points and will be near the bottom and drain
out
5. Shorter hydrocarbons have lower boiling points and turn into a liquid where it is
cooler at the top of the column
6. The crude oil has been separated depending on the length of the chain of
hydrocarbons
Fraction Levels:
LPG
Petrol
Naphtha
Kerosene (Paraffin)
Diesel
Oil
Bitumen

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