Formula Sheet

Orginally Made for AQA specification. Contains almost every formula needed for business AS e.g. PED, labour productivity, break even etc. If you think some are missing please feel free to comment.

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Formula Sheet
Total costs = fixed costs + variable costs
Total revenue = price x quantity
Profit = total revenue ­ total costs
Variable Costs per unit = Varible costs/ output
Fixed Costs per unit = Fixed costs/output
Contribution per unit = selling price ­ variable costs per unit
Total contribution = total revenue ­ total variable costs
Breakeven Point = Fixed Costs/contribution per unit
Break-even output = Fixed costs / contribution per unit
Net cash flow = cash inflow ­ cash outflow
Closing balance = Opening balance + net cash flow
Variance = actual figure ­ budgeted figure
Gross profit margin = (Gross profit / sales revenue) * 100
Net profit margin = (Net profit / sales revenue) * 100
Return on capital (employed) = (Net profit / capital employed) * 100
Labour productivity = output per period / number of employees per period
Labour turnover = (number of employees leaving a business / average number employed period) * 100
Price elasticity of demand = % change in price / % change in quantity demanded
Percentage change = (change / original) * 100
Capacity Utilisation = Current output/ Maximum output *100
Market Share = Company Sales/ Total sales in market *100
Market Size = Average selling price of product
Unit costs = Total Costs/ output
P.E.D.
Step 1. Figure out the percentage change, for both quantity and price.
(new price- old price)/ old price and (new quantity-old quantity)/ old quantity.
Step 2. You then take these Values and divide them change in (quantity/change in price) * 100

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