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Metal and Ore Reducing Agent and Conditions Reduction Equation Social/Environmental/Economic
Information Reasons Considerations
Coke (a cheap form of carbon from coal) and Hot air Blast furnace (The furnace is When iron oxide is reduced by carbon: Reduces scrap iron in landfill as it can be
Fe limestone. hearted by hot air and the combustion of recycled.
coke inside the furnace raises the temp 2Fe2O3 (s) + 3C (s) 4Fe (l) + 3CO2 (g) Extracting more iron produces CO2 so it is better
Coke is the reducing agent and some iron further. The furnace is about 1500 C or to recycle.
(III) oxide is reduced by carbon, however 2000K). When iron oxide is reduced by carbon CO2, CO and SO2 (acid rain) is released.
most is reduced by carbon monoxide gas monoxide: Slag can be used as an aggregate do can be
as it is a gas it can circulate freely in the Limestone removes any acidic calcium flooded as a building material.
blast furnace. carbonate. C (s) + O2 (g) CO2 (g)
Carbon impurity makes iron a poor building
CO2 (g) + C (s) 2CO (g) material brittle.
Fe2O3 (s) + 3C O(s) 2Fe (l) + 3CO2 (g) CO is toxic so it is burnt more to make CO2 (a
Carbon or carbon monoxide High temperature to decompose the CuCO3 Metal produced contained carbon impurity.
Cu carbonate. CuO + CO2
Then add the carbon. CuO + C Cu + CO
Scrap iron Cu2+ with dilute acid spray and add Low energy cost.
bacteria. + Fe (s) Cu (s) + Fe 2+ Using waste material recycling scrap iron
rather than adding to landfill.
Scrap iron is available and cheaper to buy than
copper is to sell.
At the cathode each Al3+ ion gains 3 Aluminium is more reactive than Reduction is gain of electrons REG Recycling Al uses only 5% of the energy of
Al electrons to form an atom of aluminium. carbon so it has to be extracted from extracting, so it is cheaper and better for the
Here aluminium is being reduced. its ore by electrolysis. Al3+ + 3e- Al environment to recycle.
Oxidation happens at the anode in The aluminium oxide is added to the High energy costs.
electrolysis. Here the oxide ions O2- have reaction cell filled with molten Loss of electrons is oxidation LEO Done in places with hydroelectric Power
been oxidised to form oxygen gas. creolite (a less common ore). The Stations.
ELECTRIC CURRENT. creolite lowers the melting point of 2O2- 02 + 4e- Carbon electrodes need to be replaced.
aluminium oxide to save energy.
Reacted with coke and chlorine at 1137K An inert argon atmosphere is needed A batch process as it is done in two steps so it
Ti to produce titanium chloride. Then this is to prevent the metal reacting with TiO2 + 2C + 2Cl2 TiCl4 + 2Cu isn't as efficient and uses more energy.
reacted with sodium or magnesium at nitrogen and oxygen in the air and Has to be distilled to purify.
1300K in an argon atmosphere. (Na or the TiCl4 reacting with water in air to TiCl4 + 4Na Ti + 4NaCl OR More expensive due to re-energy costs.
Mg) produce HCl. TiCl4 + 2Mg MgCl2 + Ti Low density metal.
Chorine, coke and 1137K. Strong unreactive metal that can with stand high
Purified by distillation. temperatures.
Reduced by hydrogen at a high High temperature. Using hydrogen as a reducing agent is the last
W temperature. resort as it is very flammable.
WO3 + 3H2 W +3H2O
Cannot be reduced by carbon as CO2 is formed.
Hydrogen is not a renewable source.