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Laura Muth




Discuss the role of endogenous pacemakers and exogenous zeitgebers biological rhythms.



Endogenous pacemakers and exogenous zeitgebers are used to control biological rhythms. The
external environmental cues such as light or temperature are exogenous zeitgebers whereas the
internal biological clocks that pace brain structures are endogenous pacemakers.

In mammals,…

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Laura Muth




opposite of entrainment is `free-running' where the biological clock operates in the absence of any
exogenous cues.

Until fairly recently, biologists thought that social cues were the main zeitgebers for human circadian
rhythms due to us eating meals at socially determined mealtimes and going to bed and waking…

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Laura Muth




have replicated these studies and were not able to replicate these findings and so there is dispute to
as how reliable his theory is.

We need pacemakers, otherwise there would be problems. If animal's rhythm solely relied on
environmental cues we might sleep most of the day in…

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