Education Key terms from AQA Collins Book

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Sociology Keywords
Culture the way of life of a particular society or social group
Deviance rulebreaking behaviour
Identity the sense of who we are
Norms rules of behaviour in social situations
Values widely accepted beliefs that some things are worthwhile
Roles positions in society such as mother. Roles are made up of norms
Ethnocentrism the belief that one culture is `normal' and others inferior
Primary socialisation socialisation in the very early years of life, normally through
Secondary socialisation socialisation that continues throughout life, education, the
media and religion are all important influences
Socialisation the process by which we learn acceptable cultural beliefs and behaviours
Consensus a general agreement
Functionalism a sociological perspective that focuses on understanding how the
different parts of society work together to keep it running smoothly
Social institution a part of society, such as education or the family
Social integration sense of belonging to society
Social order patterns of shared and predictable behaviour
Social solidarity a sense of community
Value/moral consensus an agreement among a majority of members of society that
something is good and worthwhile
Bourgeoisie (or capitalist) the owners of businesses, and the dominant class in
capitalist societies
Capitalism an economic system associated with modern societies, based on private
ownership of businesses
False class consciousness the state of not being aware of our true identity as
exploited workers
Ideology the norms and values that justify the capitalist system
Marxism a sociological perspective based on the writings of Karl Marx. It believes that
societies are unequal and unfair
Means of production the land, factories, machines, science and technology, and
labour power required to produce goods
Meritocratic based on ability and effort
Proletariat the working class in capitalist societies
Correspondence theory Bowles and Gintis's theory that various aspects of economic
production have corresponding features in the educational system
Cultural capital cultural skills, such as knowing how to behave, speak and learn,
passed on by middleclass parents to their children
Equality of opportunity every person having the same chances and opportunities
Hidden curriculum the informal learning of particular values and attitudes in schools
Ideological control getting people to behave in a demand in a desired way by
convincing them that it is in their interests to behave in that way
Meritocracy system where people are rewarded on the basis of their ability and talent

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Secondary education education between the ages of 11 and 16
State education education provided by local and central governments
Cultural disadvantage the cultural deprivation theory suggests that some pupils
backgrounds are in some way deficient or inferior, cultural difference explanations
suggest that pupils backgrounds are simply different, and that the mismatch with the
culture of the school places them at a disadvantage
Differential educational attainment the extent to which educational achievement
differs between social groups
EMA a means tested sum of up to £30 per…read more

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Qualitative methods methods, such as participant observation, that produce primarily
written data and allow the researcher to see things from the perspective as those being
Quantitative methods methods, such as questionnaires, that produce primarily
statistical data
Topdown theories sociological theories that believe it is important to look at society
as a whole when studying it
Triangulation term often used to describe the use of multiple methods (qualitative and
Case study a highly detailed case of one or two social situations
Cluster sampling the…read more

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Closed questions requires a very specific reply, `yes' or `no' answers
Interviewer bias the influence of the interviewer on the way the respondent replies
Reliability quality achieved when all questionnaires and interviews have been
completed with consistency.…read more


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