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Chemical detection

Qualitative and quantitative chemistry

1 mole of gas occupies 24 000 cm3 (24 dm3) at room temperature (25OC) and pressure (1 atm).
Equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain the same amount
of molecules

Concentration of solutions

The concentration of a solution can be…

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Mg2+ A white precipitate
insoluble in sodium hydroxide

NH4+ No precipitate is formed
On heating ammonia gas is given off


Cation: Colour of flame:
Ba2+ Apple green

Ca2+ Brick red

Cu2+ Green/blue


K+ Lilac/purple


Na+ Bright orange / yellow




Food label




Risks in food:

Benefits Risks
Animal drugs Helps the…

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been banned in many
countries




Chemistry working for us
Contact process




Fertilizers

Element Importance to growing Natural sources Artificial source
plant
Nitrogen For growth of stems Manure, dried bird Ammonium nitrate,
and leaves droppings, dried ammonium sulphate,
blood Urea
Phosphorus For root growth Bone meal Ammonium phosphate
Potassium For flowers…

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Soap and detergent

Washing powder contains:

Active detergent- does the cleaning
Water softener
Bleaches to remove coloured stains
Optical brighteners
And sometime enzymes used in low temp. washes to remove food stains



Soaps can be made by reacting fat with sodium hydroxide. The fat is placed in a beaker and…

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Soapless detergents

The molecules of soapless detergents have a long hydrocarbon tail and an ionic SO4-2 head.

Crude oil + concentrated sulphuric acid soapless detergent + water




Soap Detergents

Hard water Give scum No scum
Conditions Do not clean well in acidic No condition required
conditions
Biodegradable Yes No ­…

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Oil paints
Have pigment dispersed in oil
And often a solvent that dissolves in oil
Dyes are chemical compounds that can attach themselves to textiles, leather, paper and
other surfaces and give them colour

Other pigments

Thermionic pigment change colour when heated or cooled. Thermionic pigment can be added to…

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Reduce
inflammation

Side effect Gastric irritation Overdose can cause liver Gastric irritation
damage
Average cost (32 tablet) 0.55 p 0.45 p £ 3.42
Maximum dose 4g daily 4g daily 2.4 g daily


Synthesis of aspirin

Salicylic acid is added to the mixture and heated to about 900C for about 24…

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