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Conditions required for coral reefs to form:
· Temperature:
­ Air - 25-26 degrees
­ Water - 18 degrees
· Water depth - less than 25m, not exposed to air
· Light for photosynthesis
· Salinity is required
· Clean, clear water (sediment free)
· Well oxygenated water, produced by strong wave action…read more

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Types of reef
· Fringing Reef:
­ Directly attached to the shore or borders it with an
intervening channel or lagoon
· Barrier Reef:
­ Separated from mainland or island shore by a deep
lagoon; Great Barrier Reef
· Atoll Reef:
­ More or less circular or continuous barrier reef
extending all the way around a lagoon without a
central island…read more

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The urgency to protect marine biodiversity
· The sea has long been treated as a gigantic `commons' of unlimited
resources
· Coastal and marine areas the world over provide food,
transportation, recreation and energy resources to increasing
numbers of people each year
· Declining water quality, pollution, habitat loss and introduction of
exotic pets are examples of inappropriate human activity and poor
management
· Appearance of more and more `death zones' where the ecosystems
are destroyed to such a degree that there is hardly any form of life
left…read more

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MPAs
· Any areas of intertidal or sub tidal terrain, together with overlying water and
associated flora, fauna, historical features and cultural features reserved by
law or other effective means to protect part or all, of the enclosed
environment.
· Most often used to promote conservation of marine biodiversity and
ecosystems
· Can also be used to benefit industries - fisheries, tourism etc.
Types of MPAs:
· Multiple use
· Fully protected - No Take Zones
· Fisheries reserved boxes
· Areas of archaeological interest
· Military exercise areas
· Safety zones round marine structures (oil platforms, offshore wind farms)…read more

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CITIES
· Convention on International Trade in
Endangered Species
· Conservation on an international scale
· Conservation of wild flora and fauna
· Not allowed to trade in them (ivory, fur,
coral etc)…read more

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