Creation of Israel (20th century)

Includes British mandate, Sykes-Picot agreement 1916, Balfour Declaration, opinions on WW2, UN and creation of Israel.

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: C.Gan
  • Created on: 25-03-12 12:32
Preview of Creation of Israel (20th century)

First 586 words of the document:

The Creation of Israel ­ 1945 ­ 1948
Creation of Israel: Palestine in the 19th Century
Zionist historians
Argue that Palestine was neglected, sparsely settled part of the Ottoman Empire, that those Arabs
living in Palestine were migratory and poor, that they had little or nor political identity, that the land
was poorly used and that the new settlers brought capital, skills and population that led to the
economy and political development of region. Argue that the Arabs, rather than recognising the
opportunities the new settler provided them, reacted negatively and with violence toward the
peaceful Zionist settlers.
Arab historians
Argue that these are inaccurate characterisations of Palestine and its inhabitants. They claim that
there was thriving Palestinian Arab population, that the land was well and productively used, that
there was an awakening sense of national consciousness and political awareness and that the
region was experiencing economic growth through reforms instituted by the Ottoman rulers in the
middle of the nineteenth century.
Argue that the Zionist settlers, through their unwillingness or inability to accommodate local customs,
provoked, if not initiated the violence that occurred in this period.
Arrival of the Zionists
A group of Russian Jewish settlers arrived in 1882. The fourteen settlers who landed in Jaffa in 1882
belonged to an organisation founded in 1882 in Russia called Hovevei Zion (lovers of Zion). They
were the beginning of the first wave of modern Jewish immigrants to Palestine. These immigrants
called themselves Zionists and they came to Palestine to build a new homeland or state for Jews.
Zionism: essentially Jewish nationalism. It is the belief that Jews are a people or nation that they
have a right to a homeland or state and that the location of that state rightfully, by history and
heritage is Israel. Some see it is a divine right. Zionism was the Jewish equivalent of Christian efforts
to establish secular liberial states in Europe.
The Rothschild's
The Rothschild's were a wealthy French Jewish family who purchased land in 1901 and
administered about 25 villages. In 1901 the new World Zionist Organisation established a Jewish
National Fund to purchase land and by 1914 the Jewish population of Palestine had increased from
45 000 in 1895 to around 85000 (12% of total population). There were more than 50 settlements.
They were self sufficient and were based on social ideas and they opposed the use of local Arab
labourers. In 1909 they founded the coastal town of Tel Aviv.
Arab response to the Zionist settlers
Ownership of land in Palestine in 1914
Many peasants were forced off the land as a result of the Turkish land reforms and Zionist purchase
and settlements. The majority was forced to work as agricultural labourers.
- 70% of land was owned by 150 Arab land owners
- 50% of southern region was owned by around 150 Arab landlords
- 30% of northern Palestine and 50% of the southern region was owned by the sultan and
Islamic trusts
- Jewish landholdings were only 2.5% of Palestine, although they were increasing
Many peasants protested over the loss of their land rights. Arab landowners and wealth families
joined them in seeking redress from the sultan for land sales to foreigners ­ especially Jews ­
without success.
Zionist settlers armed themselves and skirmishes took place. Arab newspapers warned against the
economic threat posed by Jewish settlements and continued Zionist colonisation.
1

Other pages in this set

Page 2

Preview of page 2

Here's a taster:

Palestine before World War I
Zionist historians argue that Zionists brought much needed energy, innovation and capital to
Palestine, expanding and modernising agricultural production. They argue that the Zionists radical
European political ideas galvanised the local population into formulating and shaping their own
political identity which they had not done until the arrival of the Zionists.…read more

Page 3

Preview of page 3

Here's a taster:

Sykes-Picot Agreement 1916
Was an agreement between the British and the French that basically carved up the Arab state. They
both agreed on areas that would control and have influence over while recognising and protecting
the independent Arab state or confederation of Arab states. They decided who had control over
what, what cities they each controlled or influenced and what powers each of them have.…read more

Page 4

Preview of page 4

Here's a taster:

Palestine becomes a British Mandate
Britains first task was to reconstruct and expand the country's infrastructure of roads, rail and
telegraphs, schools, hospitals, police, agriculture and industry. They tried to do so against a
backdrop of increasing hostility and conflict between Arabs and Jews as both sides made
contradictory and impossible demands on the mandate administration.
As British rule continued, riots, demonstrations, outbreaks of violence, strikes and boycotts became
increasingly frequent and violent.…read more

Page 5

Preview of page 5

Here's a taster:

Jewish population lived on these kibbutzim's. The Zionists did not own a
great deal of land in Palestine. In 1945 they only controlled around 7% of the land.
Jews made up 90% of the industrial workers in the mandate, paid more than half of all government
taxes.
Palestinian Arabs worked mainly on the land, producing cash export crops such as olives, grains
and citrus fruit. There was little incentive for landless peasants to improve the land.…read more

Page 6

Preview of page 6

Here's a taster:

Arab response:
Saw WWII as an opportunity to rid themselves of both the British and the Jews and to achieve
independence. This meant that they backed the axis powers (Italy and Germany). There was little
they could do and the British were victorious in the Middle East. Palestinian Arabs were poorly led
and organised, poorly armed and financed, received little external support and their leaders were
inept in reading the post war situation. The overall outcome was a catastrophe.…read more

Page 7

Preview of page 7

Here's a taster:

The role of the United States in the creation of Israel
Before WWII the Americans saw Palestine as British responsibility. By 1943 the US State
Department was concerned about American production of oil for the war and the supply of oil for
post ­ war Europe an din May 1943 it advised President Roosevelt that she should reassure the
Arab world of American friendship.
By the end of 1943 the situation seemed hopeless to Jews throughout the world.…read more

Page 8

Preview of page 8

Here's a taster:

Israelis:
- the Arabs ­ not only Palestinian Arabs but most if not all Middle Eastern Arab states ­ have
no accepted and remain unwilling to accept a Jewish state or the idea of the a Jewish state in
the region
- that the majority of the Arab world has not given up and will not give up and use the force of
weapons to destroy Israel
- that they have been forced to and must continue to defend themselves by demonstrating
unassailable military superiority…read more

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar History resources:

See all History resources »See all resources »