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Classification and Diagnosis of Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is characterised by a profound disruption of cognition and emotion,
which affects a person's language, thought, perception and even sense of self.

A psychotic illness
Loss of contact with reality
Disruption of thought and emotion

Diagnostic criteria

Positive Symptoms

Delusions: bizarre beliefs…

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Avoition: the reduction of, or inability to initiate and persist in goal-directed
behaviour (for example, sitting in the house for hours every day, doing
nothing\0. It is often mistaken for apparent disinterest.

Diagnostic and statistical manual (DSM-IV-TR)

A. Characteristic Symptoms: Two (or more) of the following, each present…

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Carson 1991 claimed that the DSM provided a reliable system for diagnosis.
Whaley (2001) found inter-rater reliability correlations in the diagnosis of
schizophrenia as low as 0.11.
There are different classification systems used for diagnosis. In the US the DSM
is used and in the UK the ICD…

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Validity is what is schizophrenia?
Bental (1988) did a large review of all research into aetiology, prognosis and
treatment and found that schizophrenia wasn't a useful scientific category.


Schneider (1959) listed first rank symptoms, he believed these are only found
in schizophrenics, such as delusions and hallucinations.…




This is a really tricky part of the spec, so this is a great help, thanks 

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