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Study of all aspects of development in childhood
· What affects development, and the impact of childhood
experiences on an individuals cognitive, social and
emotional development
· Infancy, childhood and adolescence
· Main focus on early relationships with main caregivers
What is child psychology…read more

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­ A two-way emotional bond in which an infant and primary
caregiver depend on each other
­ Bowlby described the bond being as significant for a child's
mental being as vitamins are for their physical
· Separation Anxiety
­ Distress caused by absence of the primary caregiver
­ Bowlby described this to be a set pattern of behaviour to enhance
survival, as the distress caused by the absence, causes the child to
actively search for the caregiver
· Day care
­ Situation where pre-schoolers are supervised and temporarily
cared for by someone who is not the primary caregiver
Definitions…read more

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­ Process whereby a new species arises from an existing species
due to gradual changes in their genetic make up over long periods
of time
­ Involving process of variation, adaption and natural selection
· Privation
­ When a child never had the opportunity to form an attachment
with a caregiver
­ Mum dies in childbirth
· Deprivation
­ When a child forms an attachment with a main caregiver but
something causes the attachment to be lost so the infant no
longer has the attachment
Definitions…read more

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Darwin's theory of natural selection suggested species
have adaptive traits which enable organisms to survive in
their environment, Bowlby believed this to apply to the
evolutionary need to form attachment
· Attachment is a survival mechanism
­ We have an innate need to form a bond ­based on love and
affection- with a main caregiver, which will result in close
proximity with each other
­ Innate need explained why girls play with dolls, instead of cars
· Bond ensures survival of gene pool and continuation of
­ Mother protects child and ensures it grows up in order for that
child to reproduce (babies born helpless and dependent)
Bowlby Theory of Evolution…read more

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Bowlby used Lorenz's research on goslings to demonstrate
this theory
· Imprinting occurs when infant forms attachment with the
first significant person in their lives (monotropy)
· Bases of bond was innate need for love and protection,
rather than a need for food (cupboard love theory)
­ Used Harlow's monkeys to support findings as monkeys preferred
to cling to cloth monkey instead of wired monkey providing food
· Separation anxiety shows the need for close proximity
between caregiver and infant, as the caregiver is seen as a
safe base ­protection from danger
Bowlby Theory of Evolution…read more

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