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1 dm3 = 1000 cm3 = 1 litre
Mass (g) Mass in g
Moles = M Or Moles = Molar Mass
Moles = Concentration X Volume (in dm3) Solution/Concentration
Concentration X Volume (in cm3)
Moles =
Volume in dm3
Moles =
Volume in cm3
24,000…read more

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Chemical Properties & Periodicity
· Atomic Radius Increases down the groups
making ionization energy lower.
· Shielding- Inner electrons repel the outer ones
making ionization energy lower. Remains
· Higher protons no. increases the nucleus
attraction with electrons making the atomic
radius decreases across the periods and
ionization energy higher.…read more

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heat required = - (mass x specific heat capacity x the rise in temperature)
· q = enthalpy change in joules
· m= mass of substance being heated (often
H20) in grams
· c = specific heat capacity in joules per Kevin
per gram. (4.18 JK-1g-1 for H20)
· T = change of temperature in Kevin (add 273
e.t.c 0oC = 273K…read more

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Enthalpy Change e.g.
Q. In a lab experiment, 1.16g of
· organic liquid fuel was
completely burnt in oxygen.
The heat formed during this
raised the temperature of 100g
of water from 295.3K to 357.8
Calculate the standard
enthalphy of combustion, Hc,
of the fuel. The Molar Mass is
58…read more

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Percentage Yield & Atom Economy
Actual Yield
Percentage Yield = x 100
Theoretical Yield
Molecular Mass of Desired
Atom Economy = x 100
Sum of Molecular Masses
of all products…read more

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