Chemistry Core

Chemistry notes for year 10 work for AQA. I reckon theres a few spelling mistakes in this one, sorry.

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  • Created on: 16-06-09 12:56
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First 318 words of the document:

Chemistry
Atoms, Metals, Rocks & Fuel
Fuels From Crude Oil
Mo st
o f
t
h e c omp ou nds i
n cr ude oi
l
are
hydrocarbons.
T he
one s
in
h ydr
o car
b on s are alkanes.
A l
kan es
h ave t
he
g ener al
f
o rmu l
a CnH2n+2
A l
kan es
a r
e saturated hydro carbons.
T his
me ans t
h ei
r
c arbon at
oms ar
e j
oined
b y
a single b ond. Th i
s ma ke s t
hem rel
a ti
v ely
unreactive,
a par
t
fro m t
he i
r
c ombu st
ion.
T he
s mall
e r the
h yd r
oca rbon ,
the
lower t
h e
b oi
li
ng
point
.
Fractional Distillation
T he
c ol
umn is
hot at t
he
bo t
t om and cool a t
t
he
top .
S ubs t
ances wi t
h hi
g h
boi
li
ng
p oi
nts wi
ll
co ndens e at
the
b ot
tom. Each fr act
ion
c ont
ains
hyd r
ocar bon
mo lecules w it
h si
mi lar
n umb er
s of
carbon atoms.

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Page 2

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T hese
fr
acti
o ns ar
e
ma inl
y used as
fue ls
but do
h ave ot
he r
u ses.
H yd r
ocarbon s wi
th sma l
l
mo l
ecules ma ke
better
fuel
s t
h an
hydro c arbons wi
t h
la r
ge mo l
ecu l
e s
becau se
they are
volat i
le,
f
low e asil
y and a r
e ea s i
ly
igni
ted.…read more

Page 3

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Wh en i
t is
h eat
ed ,
i
t
breaks
do wn t
o
for
m calci
um o x ide
(quickl
ime )
and c ar
bon
d ioxi
de.…read more

Page 4

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­ heat
ing
w i
th
clay
in
a ki
ln
concr
ete
­ mix
ing
w i
th
san d,
water an d
crushed
rock
mort
ar ­
mixi
ng wi
th sand
an d
w at
e r
Glass
G l
ass
is
mad e
by melt
ing sand t
hen cool
ing i
t
.…read more

Page 5

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Transition metals
T hey
are
found
in t
h e
middl
e of
t
he
per
iodi
c t
abl
e.…read more

Page 6

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T hese me tal s have
ce r
tai
n prop erti
es w hi
ch ma kes
them usef
u l:
T h ey have a l
ow
den si
ty
T h ey have a ver
y thi
n l
ay er
of
th ei
r
oxides of
t
h e
surface ,
w hich
stops ai
r
an d
w ater
ge t
ti
ng i
nto t
he
me tal
so they
resi
st corr
osion
A lumini
um is
u…read more

Page 7

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S o
to ma ke i
t
mo re usef ul
b l
ast f ur
na ce
iron i
s convert
e d i
nto steel by re mo vi
ng some of
t
he
carb on .
Making Steel
C a r
bon i
s remo ved
by bl owi
n g o xygen i
nto t
h e
mo l
ten me t
al.…read more

Page 8

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Inner core ­ ma d e f
rom s oli
d ni
ckel
and i
ron
Plate Tectonics
T h e Earth'
s cr ust
and up pe r
pa r
t of
t h e man t
le
are b rok e n
u p
i nt
o l
arge pieces
c a l
le d t
ectonic
p l
ates.
T hes e are con stantl
y moving a t
a
few
ce nti
me tr
es
e ach
y e ar .…read more

Page 9

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The Early Atmosphere
T he
earl
y a tmo sph ere
w as p r
o ba bl
y f
orme d
fr
om the
g ases
given
o ut
by
v olcanoes. I t
is
b eli
ev ed that
th er e
w as
int
en se volca ni c
acti
vit
y f
or
the f
ir st b i
l
li
o n
y ears of
t
he Eart
h 's
ex ist
en ce .…read more

Page 10

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Pl
ant
Oil
s And
Food
Addi
ti
ves
Vegetable oils
are nat
ural
oil
s f
ound
in
see ds,
nut
s and some
frui
ts.
Pressi
ng
a nd cr
ushi
ng the pl
ant
ma ter
ial
r
e l
eases t
h e
oil
.
S ome t
ime s th e
oil
i
s more
d if
fi
cul
t
to
extract
and has
to
be
dissol
ved in
a sol
ven t
.…read more

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