Changing Urban Environments

Revision notes on the urban topic of gcse geography aqa

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Changing urban environments
A process where an increasing proportion of the population lives in towns and cities
An increasing proportion of city dwellers in contrast those in the countryside (urbanisation)
A worldwide process
Began at different times in different places
Occurs at different paces
Differs between rich and poor
Is happening all over the world
Most people in richer countries already live in cities but in poorer countries there are not as many
people living in urban area so most urbanisation is happening in poorer countries at a fast pace.
Initial cause usually rural- urban migration- result of push-pull factors though they are different for
richer countries to poorer countries
In poorer countries ­ shortage of services in rural areas, they believe it is better quality of life, more
jobs as industry attracted to cities because of bigger workforce and better infrastructure
In richer countries ­ happened when machinery started to replace farm labour people moved for
new jobs in factories late 20th century moved out of run down inner city areas but now being
encouraged back by the redevelopment.
If lots of young people move to towns( what people who migrate to towns are generally like) then
that results in high levels of natural increase, high proportion of young adults results in high birth
level, death rate falls because of improved medical care, more babies born than people dying,
increase population
Land use and parts of a city
Usually made up of 4 main parts each part has a different main use
In the centre is CBD(Central Business District), the commercial centre with shops/offices, where
transport routes meet, high land values, competition for space, tall buildings and high building
density, not many people live in it, main shopping and service area, easily accessible
Surrounding this is inner city, a mix of poorer quality housing and older industrial buildings, can be
quite run down but also newer housing and industry where the area has been redeveloped
Surrounding this is the suburbs or outer city, housing area toward the edge, land is cheaper, close
enough to commute into centre for work easily, usually middle-class families because nicer
environment, less crime/pollution
Then rural-urban fringe, at very edge of city, both urban(factories) and rural(farming) land uses,
fewer, larger houses
Doesn't always match the model real cities are slightly different, France Sweden and Italy suburbs
are more deprived area and inner city more wealthy
Changes over time, shopping centres built out of town (causing shops in CBD to shut down),
inner-city tower block been removed and replaced by housing estates on rural-urban fringe, new
housing built on Brownfield sites (cleared land) in inner city instead toward the edge of city.

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Urban issues
Population in UK has increased by 7% since 1971 and growth is supposed to continue to 52.…read more

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More cars, traffic congestion
Air/noise pollution
Buildings discoloured
Impact on health, conditions such as asthma
Introduce a congestion charging zone, park and ride scheme, encourage cycling with separate
bike lane, encourage and make public transport more attractive
Bus priority lanes
Pedestrianisation of central areas reducing levels of pollution and accidents
Multicultural mix
Segregation as people tend to cluster with people from similar areas
Feel they have support from others, they feel safe and secure when can relate to people form
same background, sense…read more

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As few official jobs available people create own employment, selling items making and repairing
things on a small scale, becoming couriers cleaners gardeners taking in laundry, they work long
hours for not much pay
Houses not provided with sanitation, piped water, electricity, road access,
Houses made of any materials nearby ­ corrugated iron, pieces of board, haphazardly assembled to
provide basic shelter, simple layout may have sleeping area separate from living area
Very overcrowded area
No toilets
Water must be collected from a nearby source,…read more

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Paths between houses are irregular, narrow and often have a ditch running down the
middle that has sewage in
Rubbish litters the area as it is not collected. This causes a rotting mess
The area smells of the charcoal used to provide fuel and of human waste
A standpipe may supply water for up to 40 families
Private operators run hosepipes into the area and charge double the going rate for
Crime is rife and viligiante groups offer security at a price.…read more

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People in cities create a lot of waste which can damage people's health and the environment
especially if it is toxic and not disposed of properly
E-waste ­ electronic waste such as broken computers, some people try to extract more valuable
parts and minerals from computer bits but what they don't realise is that there are also toxic
parts to the computer
It costs a lot to properly dispose of waste safely ­ toxic waste must be treated which can be
Poor countries can't…read more

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Kept buildings architecturally as they were during the heyday of the British empire but their
function has changed so they can be used but still conserve the environment of cultural and
historical importance
Natural environment conserved by stopping development on the edge of built up areas and
encouraging it to take place on other sites in the inner city of other areas
Green belts ­ prevent urban sprawl, ensure surrounding country is protected from development, it
provide recreational open space for urban residents
Building on…read more

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Housing policy that will provide 50,000 homes for the urban poor…read more



very good

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