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Light Microscopes

Light Microscopes use visible light to magnify images.
Light has its limits with:

Any specimen that has properties less than 250 nm apart cannot be resolved and is
seen as one or not seen entirely.
And a maximum magnification of ×1500

Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) & Transmission…

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The Animal Cell
Incl. Cell Ultrastructure

An Animal cell is a very simple structure, with a number of different organelles. Animal, and
Plant cells are Eukaryotic Cells. Their nuclei contain the DNA, and they have a complex
system of organelles.

A generalised Animal Cell

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Cell Ultrastructure
Eukaryotic Cells Under the Electron Microscope

Cell Surface Membrane/ Plasma Membrane:

The cellsurface membrane is the plasma membrane that
surrounds the cell and forms a boundary between the cell
cytoplasm and the environment. It allows different
conditions to be allowed inside and outside the cell. The
membrane is…

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This is the largest of the organelles, and has a number of
o The Nuclear Envelope is a double membrane, in
which the outer membrane is continuous with RER,
whereas the inner membrane controls the entry and
exit of substances.
o The Nuclear Pores allow ribosomes, and the…

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Lysosomes are formed from the vesicles produced in the
golgi apparatus. They contain enzymes that can break up a
cell by releasing their contents.


These are fingerlike projections of the epithelial cell that
increase its surface area to allow more efficient


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