Carboxylic Acids

physical properties

functional group

preparation

reactions

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CARBOXYLIC ACIDS
Functional group ­COOH
Carbonyl group (C=O) and hydroxyl group (-OH)
Named using suffix ­oic acid
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
High boiling temperatures due to ­OH group
allowing intermolecular hydrogen bonds
Soluble in polar solvents such as water
because hydrogen bonds can be formed
Strong smells
PREPARATION OF ACIDS
1. Oxidation of alcohols or carbonyl compounds
o e.g. ethanol + 2[O] ethanoic acid + water
o e.g ethanal + [O] ethanoic acid
o Excess potassium dichromate (VI) or potassium
manganate (VII)
o Boiled under reflux
o Distil to collect product
2. Acid hydrolysis of nitriles (cyanides)
o e.g. propanenitrile + water propanoic acid +
ammonia
o Dilute sulphuric acid (H2SO4) used as a catalyst
3. Iodoform reaction

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REACTIONS
Reaction with water to give carboxylate anion and H3O+ ion
Formation of halogenoacid and HCl from carboxylic acid and chlorine
o Chlorine bubbled into boiling carboxylic acid
o Free-radical substitution
o UV light used as a catalyst
Reduction to primary alcohols (and water)
o Lithium aluminium hydride (LiAlH4)
o Anhydrous conditions dry ether ethoxyethane used as solvent
o Heated under reflux
Neutralization to carboxylate salts
o Acid + alkali salt + water
o Carboxylate salts named using suffix -oate
Reaction with phosphorus (V) chloride…read more

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