Basic explanation of:

Monosaccharaides, disaccharides, polysaccharides

glucose, galactose, fructose, maltose, sucrose, lactose, starch, cellulose, glycogen

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  • Created on: 15-11-13 08:47
Preview of Carbohydrates

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The general formula for all carbohydrates is Cx(H2O)n
Sugars can be monosaccharaides (mono=one sugar unit) with the general formula of (CH2O)n [n being the number of
carbon atoms]
or disaccharides (di=two sugar units).
Long chains of sugar units form polysaccharides (poly=many) such as starch (plants), cellulose (plants) and
glycogen (animals).
The joining up of sugar molecules is a condensation reaction and requires the addition of water.
The breaking down of molecules is a hydrolysis reaction and releases a water molecule.
Have between 3 and 7 carbon atoms but the most common is 6
and they are known as hexose sugars.
Some examples of hexose sugars: Glucose, Galactose,
The carbon atoms in the ring structure of hexose sugars are
labelled 1-6 starting from left to right.
Used by all cells respiration.
Starch and glycogen are polymers made up of glucose joined
together through condensation reactions (releases a water
When starch or glycogen are digested the body breaks them
down into glucose again through hydrolysis reactions (takes in
a water molecule).
Galactose is what lactose (a sugar found in milk) is made up from.
This is a sugar that is found in fruit, honey and some vegetables. It's very sweet tasting so attracts animals to
eat the fruit therefore dispersing their seeds.
When two sugar units join together into one through a condensation reaction (releasing a water molecule).
Maltose is created by a condensation reaction between two glucose molecules. The bond between two
glucoses is called a glycosidic bond.
Maltose makes a 1-4 glycosidic bond because the bonds are between the carbons labelled 1 on one
glucose and 4 on the other.
Maltose can also be created from starch in a hydrolysis reaction that breaks starch down and takes in water,
with amylase as the catalysing enzyme.
Sucrose is formed from a condensation reaction between glucose and fructose, releasing a water molecule.

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Lactose is hydrolysed (takes in water) to turn it into galactose and glucose to make it safe for
lactose-intolerant people to drink.
These are polymers of simple sugars joined by glycosidic bonds into really long chains.
There are 3 main types: Starch, Cellulose and Glycogen.
Starch and glycogen are very good for storage molecules within cells. These poly saccharides are suitable
for storage because they are compact molecules that are insoluble so do not affect osmosis.…read more


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