Carbohydrates

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Carbohydrates This is because they have carboxyl groups Polysaccharide Monomer Bond
which can be oxidised to carboxylic acids.
- source of energy from food Therefore, they reduce other compounds, such Starch Alpha glucose C1 and C4
- different types, such as sugars and starch as Benedict's reagent to produce a precipitate. Glycogen Alpha glucose C1 and C4
- contains C H O (carbon, hydrogen and The colour of which depends upon the Cellulose Beta glucose C1 and C4
oxygen) concentration of the reducing sugar.
- simplest carbohydrate is sugars Sugars which test positive in the Benedict's test
are reducing sugars, apart from sucrose which
- can be made up from one unit called a
can be boiled with dilute acid to hydrolyse it into
monosaccharide monosaccharides.
- or can be made up of two units called Sugars that test negative are non-reducing
disaccharide sugars.
- Monosaccharides are names by the
number of carbon atoms ­ Triose, Polysaccharides:
Pentose and Hexose. - structural
- storage
General formula = CnH2nOn OR (cH2O)n
They are made up of many sugar units joined
Triose = lactic acid (lactose) and pyritic acid together.
(pyruuote).
Pentose = ribose and deoxyribose Starch: plant storage product. Are made up of
Hexose = main source of energy. two different monomers the main one being
Amylose which is repeated units of Alpha
Making Disaccharides: glucose with a 1-4 linkage. Amylopectin are
To produce a disaccharide, two alpha glucose monomers by glycosidic bonds
monosaccharide's need to join together. which some C6 branches.Starch is a compact
The products of the reaction are a disaccharide molecule which allows it to store a lot of sugar. It
and water. Because water is lost in this reaction, is also insoluble so that no osmotic effect can
it is called a condensation reaction. occur on the cell and can be readily converted to
A glycosidic bond is formed between C1 and monosaccharides/disaccharides for an energy
C4. source.
Disaccharide Source Mono. Unit Glycogen: is the storage molecule in animals,
and is similar in structure to amylopectin. Stored
Sucrose Sugar beet + Glucose + in liver and muscles.
cane fructose
Lactose Milk sugar, Glucose + Cellulose: beta glucose molecules with C1 and
main one in galactose C4 links, the hydrogen bonds hold the chain of
milk molecules together, supplying stability to the
Maltose Malt sugar, Glucose + celloluse fibre.
barley glucose The chains are lnikedtogether to form microfibril.
Chitin: similar to Cellulose but contains amino
Reducing Sugars:
acids wich are added to form a muca
Monosaccharide's such as glucose, fructose
polysaccharide. It is strong and waterproof, and
and galactose along with disaccharide maltose
forms the expskeleton oninsects.
and lactose are known as Reducing Sugars.
Summury:

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