First 498 words of the document:
Carbohydrates This is because they have carboxyl groups Polysaccharide Monomer Bond
which can be oxidised to carboxylic acids.
- source of energy from food Therefore, they reduce other compounds, such Starch Alpha glucose C1 and C4
- different types, such as sugars and starch as Benedict's reagent to produce a precipitate. Glycogen Alpha glucose C1 and C4
- contains C H O (carbon, hydrogen and The colour of which depends upon the Cellulose Beta glucose C1 and C4
oxygen) concentration of the reducing sugar.
- simplest carbohydrate is sugars Sugars which test positive in the Benedict's test
are reducing sugars, apart from sucrose which
- can be made up from one unit called a
can be boiled with dilute acid to hydrolyse it into
- or can be made up of two units called Sugars that test negative are non-reducing
- Monosaccharides are names by the
number of carbon atoms Triose, Polysaccharides:
Pentose and Hexose. - structural
General formula = CnH2nOn OR (cH2O)n
They are made up of many sugar units joined
Triose = lactic acid (lactose) and pyritic acid together.
Pentose = ribose and deoxyribose Starch: plant storage product. Are made up of
Hexose = main source of energy. two different monomers the main one being
Amylose which is repeated units of Alpha
Making Disaccharides: glucose with a 1-4 linkage. Amylopectin are
To produce a disaccharide, two alpha glucose monomers by glycosidic bonds
monosaccharide's need to join together. which some C6 branches.Starch is a compact
The products of the reaction are a disaccharide molecule which allows it to store a lot of sugar. It
and water. Because water is lost in this reaction, is also insoluble so that no osmotic effect can
it is called a condensation reaction. occur on the cell and can be readily converted to
A glycosidic bond is formed between C1 and monosaccharides/disaccharides for an energy
Disaccharide Source Mono. Unit Glycogen: is the storage molecule in animals,
and is similar in structure to amylopectin. Stored
Sucrose Sugar beet + Glucose + in liver and muscles.
Lactose Milk sugar, Glucose + Cellulose: beta glucose molecules with C1 and
main one in galactose C4 links, the hydrogen bonds hold the chain of
milk molecules together, supplying stability to the
Maltose Malt sugar, Glucose + celloluse fibre.
barley glucose The chains are lnikedtogether to form microfibril.
Chitin: similar to Cellulose but contains amino
acids wich are added to form a muca
Monosaccharide's such as glucose, fructose
polysaccharide. It is strong and waterproof, and
and galactose along with disaccharide maltose
forms the expskeleton oninsects.
and lactose are known as Reducing Sugars.