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The Basics
· The lithosphere is the Earth's rigid outer layer ­
The crust and part of the mantle below it.
· It is made up of a mixture of minerals, often
containing Oxygen, Silicon and Aluminium.
· Most of the Silicon and the Oxygen in the Earth's
crust exists as the compound Silicon dioxide.
Different types of rocks contain different minerals
and different elements for example Limestone
contains a lot of Calcium, whereas Sandstone
contains a lot of Silicon.…read more

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Silicon Dioxide forms A giant
Covalent Structure
1. Giant covalent structures like silicon dioxide, contains no
charged ions
2. All the atoms are bonded to each other by strong
covalent bonds. This gives it a rigid structure, which
makes the substance hard.
3. They have very high melting and boiling points.
4. They don't conduct electricity ­ not even when molten.
5. They're usually insoluble in water.
Silicon dioxide = each grain of sand is one giant structure of
silicon and oxygen, it's also called silica.
Silicon dioxide is the main constituent of sandstone, and it's
also found as quartz in granite.…read more


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