C1 Chemistry GCSE

These are some of my notes for my C1 Chemistry exam. I have tried to cover all the main topics and the main facts you need to know to pass. I hope it helps, it took me ages but has helped me a lot. Good luck for your exam 

Heidi :)

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Atoms and atomic structure:
Periodic Table:
protons are in order of increasing atomic number
vertical columns (group): elements with similar properties
horizontal (row) period: atomic number increases
compounds= atoms joined to other atoms using chemical bonds
o chemical bonds=electrons from reacting atoms being transferred from one to another.
mass of substance remains the same at the end of all reactions.
Fuels from crude oil:
crude oil is a mixture of compounds called hydrocarbons.( compounds of only hydrogen and
carbon)
most crude oil hydrocarbons are alkanes
o alkane formulae= CnH2n+2
o for example (look at the pattern):

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Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons.
Distillation= a process that can be used to separate a pure liquid from a mixture of liquids. It works
when liquids have varied boiling points.
here is an example of a simple method, you will need to know this:
1) Ethanol heated and as it has a lower boiling point to water it evaporates.
2) Ethanol vapour is cooled and condenses.
3) Vapour condenses to form pure liquid. ect pure ethanol without impurities.…read more

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Refinery gases:
o used for bottled gas
Petrol:
o used for fuel for cars
Naphtha:
o used for making chemicals
Kerosene:
o aircraft fuel
Diesel oil:
o used for fuel for vehicles
Fuel oil:
o used for:
o power station fuel
o ship fuel
Bitumen/residue:
o used for roads (tarmac)
In the fractionating column:
o at 25 degrees Celsius= gases escape
o at 200 degrees Celsius= liquids are removed
o at 350 degrees Celsius= solids are removed
When fuels burn they release gasses into the…read more

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Calcium hydroxide which is slaked lime
makes lime mortar for building work
limestone is used for:
o mortar
o cement
o glass
o to neutralise access acidity in water/soil
o purify iron in blast furnaces
metal carbonates e.g calcium carbonate break down when heated= thermal decomposition
o the equation for thermal decomposition of calcium carbonate:
o CaCO3 heat CaO + CO2
o other metal carbonates decompose in the same way e.…read more

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Metals that are less reactive than carbon are extracted by reduction with carbon
Iron is soft and easy to be shaped.
o can be too soft for many uses.
Iron from a blast furnace is hard
o can be too brittle for many uses
o most blast furnace iron is converted to steel by removing some carbon
Low carbon steel: 0.25% carbon
used for car body panels easy to shape
High carbon steel: 2.…read more

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If there is plenty of air we get complete combustion and the carbon in hydrocarbons is oxidised to
form carbon dioxide
If there is not enough air we get incomplete combustion and carbon monoxide is produced
o a particle of carbon is often seen as soot or smoke and sulphur dioxide are also produced.
These are harmful to the environment.…read more

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Polymers and ethanol from oil:
Crude oil can be turned into many useful products but first it must be broken down. Cracking and
polymers are key to this process.
Crude oil often contains too many hydrocarbon molecules which do not flow easily and are hard to
ignite.
In an oil refinery a process called cracking breaks down large hydrocarbon molecules into smaller,
more useful ones. Bellow is a simple version of cracking:
The products of cracking include alkenes e.…read more

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Polymer molecules can have branches coming off them which change their properties:
o HDPE: (high density polythene) example of polymer
o LDPE: (low density polythene) has more branches than HDPE. Is weaker than HDPE and
has a lower maximum temperature than HDPE.
Plasticizers make polymers softer and more flexible.…read more

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