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Atoms and atomic structure:
Periodic Table:

protons are in order of increasing atomic number
vertical columns (group): elements with similar properties
horizontal (row) period: atomic number increases
compounds= atoms joined to other atoms using chemical bonds
o chemical bonds=electrons from reacting atoms being transferred from one to another.
mass of…

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Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons.
Distillation= a process that can be used to separate a pure liquid from a mixture of liquids. It works
when liquids have varied boiling points.
here is an example of a simple method, you will need to know this:

1) Ethanol heated and as it…

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bellow is a image of fractional distillation of crude oil you will need to know

this for your exam:
Refinery gases:
o used for bottled gas
o used for fuel for cars
o used for making chemicals
o aircraft fuel
Diesel oil:
o used for fuel for…

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yellow hot
white cold
quick lime reacts with water to form Calcium hydroxide which is slaked lime
makes lime mortar for building work
limestone is used for:
o mortar
o cement
o glass
o to neutralise access acidity in water/soil
o purify iron in blast furnaces
metal carbonates e.g calcium…

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Metals that are less reactive than carbon are extracted by reduction with carbon

Iron is soft and easy to be shaped.
o can be too soft for many uses.
Iron from a blast furnace is hard
o can be too brittle for many uses
o most blast furnace iron is…

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If there is plenty of air we get complete combustion and the carbon in hydrocarbons is oxidised to
form carbon dioxide
If there is not enough air we get incomplete combustion and carbon monoxide is produced
o a particle of carbon is often seen as soot or smoke and sulphur…

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Polymers and ethanol from oil:
Crude oil can be turned into many useful products but first it must be broken down. Cracking and
polymers are key to this process.
Crude oil often contains too many hydrocarbon molecules which do not flow easily and are hard to
In an…

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Polymer molecules can have branches coming off them which change their properties:

o HDPE: (high density polythene) example of polymer
o LDPE: (low density polythene) has more branches than HDPE. Is weaker than HDPE and
has a lower maximum temperature than HDPE.
Plasticizers make polymers softer and more flexible.


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