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Biological Molecules
How hydrogen bonding occurs between water molecules and relate this, and other properties of
water, to the roles of water for living organisms:

Hydrogen bonding occurs between water molecules as it is a polar molecule (the charge is unevenly
distributed). The uneven sharing of electrons leads to the…

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The concept of monomers and polymers and the importance of condensation and hydrolysis
reactions in a range of biological molecules:

Polymers: long-chain molecules made up of covalently bonded individual molecules (monomers) in
a repeating pattern. So larger biological molecules are made from smaller molecules.

Ex: in carbohydrates the monomers are…

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The ring structure and properties of glucose as an example of a hexose monosaccharide and the
structure of ribose as an example of a pentose monosaccharide. How the structures and
properties of glucose relate to their functions in living organisms:



Glucose (C6H12O6) is a hexose monosaccharide, meaning it contains 6…

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Synthesis: Maltose is an example of a disaccharide it is formed by a condensation reaction where
covalent bonds called glycosidic bonds are formed joining carbon 1 of a glucose molecule and
carbon 4 of another glucose molecule. Water is also a product of this reaction.

Breakdown: When maltose is broken…

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Cellulose ­ A straight chain molecule formed of beta glucose molecules the OH groups are too far away to
react so 1 of the beta molecules has to be turned upside down ­ because of this it is unable to coil or form
branches.

Structure linked to function: essential part…

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Phospholipids: ideal for the formation of cell surface membranes as their inner core is hydrophobic
and the outside is hydrophilic. So the membrane is selectively permeable e.g ions have difficulty
passing through as hydrophobic core repels them

Ex: this is how membrane-bound organelles are formed in eukaryotic cells

Cholesterol: small…

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· Secondary structure: The secondary structure is when the polypeptide chain lies parallel to one
another joined by hydrogen bonds to make a beta pleated sheet OR hydrogen bonds form within
the amino acid chain to make an alpha helix structure. Is the result of hydrogen bonds.

· Tertiary structure:…

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Ex: catalase is an enzyme, it has a quaternary structure containing 4 haem prosthetic groups
too. The Fe2+ from the haem group allows catalase to interact with hydrogen peroxide (a
byproduct of metabolism that can cause damage to cells) speeding up its breakdown =
preventing it from damaging cells.

Proteins…

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form a complex with 4 nitrogen atoms from the peptide bonds. This complex makes the
solution go from blue to purple.

· Benedict's test for reducing and non-reducing sugars ­

Reducing sugars: benedict's reagent is added to the solution, then heated, if reducing sugars
are present they will react with…

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Thin layer chromatography is done exactly as it says - using a thin, uniform layer of silica gel or
alumina coated onto a piece of glass, metal or rigid plastic.

The silica gel (or the alumina) is the stationary phase. The stationary phase for thin layer
chromatography also often contains…

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