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B2 Biology Topic
Inside Living Cells

There
are 23 Chromosomes i n a
huma n cell

the
chromosome s
con si
s t
o f
l
ong,
coi
led
molecul
es call
ed DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). A
gene i
s a
secti
on
of a D NA whi
ch
codes…

Page 2

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Agitation (stirring) t
o maint
ain
an even
tempe ratu r
e .

(Look at page 38 for the diagram)
The following structures are put in an industrial fermenter...
Stirrer
kee ps mi cr
o or
ganisms i
n susp ension
an d ma i
ntai
ns an e ven…

Page 3

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T he
b ui
ld
up of
l
acti
c aci
d causes
acute
fati
gue i
n t
he muscl
e s
and
result
s i
n an
`oxygen debt'.
Thi
s causes t
he muscl
e s
to
stop
contact
ing
eff
ici
entl
y.
Af
ter
exerci…

Page 4

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Divide & Develop

Remember: How my tall sis grows. How my own sis was made from a gamete.

Mitosis
is
a t
ype
of
divi
si
on
in
a cel
l'
s nucl
eus
whi
ch
produces
diploid,
cel
ls
for
gr
owt
h,
or
replace
damaged or
worn
out…

Page 5

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Light for
p hot
o synthesi
s (absorbe d t
hrough l
ea ves)

Carbon Dioxide f or
photosynthes i
s (absorbed
from air
thr
o ugh
lea ves )
Oxygen f o r
respir
a t
ion
(abso r
bed fr
om ai
r
through l
ea v es)…

Page 6

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Mo st
ce l
ls
a r
e sp eciali
sed t
o
all
ow
them to p erform a parti
cu l
ar j
ob .
Th e pr
o cess
by
w hich
they
beco me spe cial
ised i
s cal
led differentiation.
Stem cells a r…

Page 7

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Abortion i s th e prema ture termination o f pregnancy. I
n huma ns,
pregnancy
lasts
for
a n
ave ra g e 4 0 w eeks.
T he lega l
ti
me
li
mi t
for an abort
ion
is
24 wee ks
(det
ermined by
s u…

Page 8

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Osmosis ( op posi
te to
dif
fusi
on )
i
s t
he
mo veme nt of water
from a
less concentrat
ed
d i
lut
e solut
ion t
o a mo r
e concentrat
ed thr
oug h a partially permeable membrane.
P l
an ts absorb…

Page 9

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Fish farms c onsi
s t
of
l
arge ca ge s
susp end ed i
n l
akes/l
oc hs.
Th e fi
sh are
e ncour
a ged
to
grow
by .
..

K eep i
ng eg gs and very
you ng fish
in t
anks unti…

Page 10

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them.
Fe w
li
chen s
ind i
c a t
e hig h
sulphur
dioxi
de i
n ai
r:
many l
ichens
indicat
e l
ow
c oncentr
a ti
on of
su l
p hu r i
n air
.


Water pollution ma y co n si…

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