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  • Created on: 11-01-11 18:22
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Psychology Revision
Attachment is : Affectionate two way bond between two individuals. Characterised behaviours
such as Calling, Crying and Smiling.
Classical Conditioning.
Ivan PavLov = Behaviourist Learning theory
Attachment according classical conditioning is association. Before conditioning the unconditioned stimulus
produces unconditioned reflexes. During conditioning, something is associated with something else e.g.
mum and food. After conditioning, conditioned stimulus produces a conditioned response.
Operant Conditioning

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Dollard & Millar ­ Behaviourists ­ Learning Theory
Attachment evolves because of the rewards being given when good or when something bad is prevented
from happening. This causes behaviour to be repeated. If you do something bad and it results in an
unpleasant consequence then this behaviour is less likely to be repeated.…read more

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Harlows research. Criticism of learning theories.
Harlow separated a young monkey from it's mother. There were two pretend mother figures, one was just
wire with food and the other had a cloth over the wire. The monkey spent more time with the pretend
mother which was covered with a cloth.
Harlows research offers a criticism of the learning theories because they only looked at food being the
reason for mother and child attachments, whereas Harlow tries other explanations.…read more

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Darwin's Theory
Theory of evolution
Darwins attempt to explain how change occurs
( Genetic variations)
Natural selection
Traits of variations are naturally selected.
(Traits increase chances of survival + reproduction)
Adaptive function
Behaviours that increase likelihood of survival and therefore reproduction.
Bowlby's theory
According to Bowlby : Attachment is a behavioural system that has evolved.…read more

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Mary Ainsworth
Her Early research in Uganda found, some mothers were more sensitive to infants needs and these were
securely attached. Secure attachment led to increasing competence and independence.
Learning theory can't explain the importance of sensitivity in attachments but Bowlby's theory can.
The Strange Situation
1 )The parent plays with their child
2 )The parent sits whilst infant plays Use of 'secure base'
3 )Stranger enters and talks to parent Strange anxiety
4 ) Parent leaves whilst infant plays.…read more

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Attachments affecting future behaviour…read more

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Caregiver VS Temperament
Strange Situations Validity
Demand characteristics ? Social desirability
+ Predictive validity ? Correlation between attachment type and adult behaviour.
+ Constructive validity. ? the types have been confirmed by many
+ High ecological validity.…read more

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Country Behavioural categories Justification
Israel Willingness to explore: High children born into
Separation anxiety: Low community belong to
Strange anxiety: Low everyone
Reunion behaviour: Medium Bought up away from
biological parents.…read more

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Evaluation of Crosscultural studies.
Point Example Conclusion
Enables psychologists to see African tribe ­ Tronik. (In spite ofSupports monotropy + that
which behaviours are universal or their childrearing, the infants still attachment is innate and universal.
due to the effect of culture had one primary attachment)
Point Example Conclusion
The group of participants studied Rothbaum showed that different Studied cannot represent whole
may not be representative of the subcultures had different childcarecultures because there's different
whole culture, or of every practice. subcultures.
subculture.…read more


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