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Fulham Football Club
· In 1995 FFC was placed 95th in the league, 1 place from
relegation to the Conference. The home fans were
extremely unhappy, and the manager got sacked. The fans
made threatening cheers at each home game.
· A new manager was appointed ­ Micky Adams, who had a
few free transfers but the side was mainly the same.
· One year later they sat on the top of the same league, what
happened?
· The players pay had not risen, the key difference was in the
players motivation.
· This example illustrates why motivation theory is considered
the most important topic within Business Studies.…read more

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Motivation
· Motivation ­ what is it?
­ The cause of peoples actions ­ why people behave as
they do.
· Motivation Theory ­ what is this?
­ The study of factors that influence the behavior of people
in the workplace.
· For your exam you need to study 4 theorists
­ F.W. Taylor - Elton Mayo
­ Abraham Maslow - Frederick Herzberg…read more

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Scientific Management and F.W.
Taylor
· F.W. Taylor (1856 ­ 1915) was an American engineer who
invented work-study and founded the scientific approach to
management
· He considered money to be the main factor that motivated
workers, so he emphasised the benefits of Piece Work.
· Scientific Management ­ Business decision making based on
data that are researched and tested quantitatively in order to
improve efficiency of an organisation.
· Higher efficiency would generate higher profits and thus
higher wages to workers.
· Taylor saw Humans as Machines…read more

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Scientific Management and F.W.
Taylor
· Taylor recommended:
­ Extreme division of labour (with workers specilising in one
very narrow task)
­ Payment by piecework
­ Tight management control
· Division of labour ­ breaking a job into small repetitive tasks,
each of which can be done at a speed with little training.
· Piecework ­ Means payment by results, e.g. per item
produced.
· Tight management ensures the workers concentrate on their
jobs and follow the correct processes.
· This method had a big influence on Mass production,
introduced at Ford Motor Company ­ led to poor industrial
relations and saw a growth in trade unions.…read more

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The Human Resource school &
Elton Mayo
· Elton Mayo (1880 ­ 1949) was a follower of F.W. Taylor,
but his experiments led him to conclude that Scientific
management could not explain the importance of peoples
behavior in the workplace.
· Many of his findings including the `Hawthorn Effect" came
from research he did at the Western Electric School factory
in Hawthorn, USA and provided the foundations for the
Human Relations School of Management.
· His early research involved trying to measure the impact on
productivity of improving the lighting conditions in the
Western Electric Factory.
· He followed F.W.Taylor's Scientific principles by testing
changes in light conditions against one group of workers
against a group of workers with unchanged lighting.…read more

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