AS Chemistry Atoms Bonds and Groups (OCR F321)

A full 30 page revision guide, made by ensuring that it covers absolutely everything on the specification. Made specifically for OCR module F321 although will cover most things in AQA and Edexcel specification. Some things going beyond the syllabus to help answer 'suggest why' questions. In word so you can make your own additions if you wish. Enjoy!

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Chemistry F321
Contents
Atoms and Reactions ......................................................................................................................... 1
Atomic Structure ........................................................................................................................... 1
Changing atom .......................................................................................................................... 1
Subatomic particles ................................................................................................................... 2
Ions ........................................................................................................................................... 2
Isotopes ..................................................................................................................................... 3
Atomic masses............................................................................................................................... 3
Moles and equations ..................................................................................................................... 3
Amount of substance ................................................................................................................. 3
Molar mass ................................................................................................................................ 3
Formula ..................................................................................................................................... 4
Chemical equations ....................................................................................................................... 5
Moles calculations ......................................................................................................................... 5
Stoichiometry ............................................................................................................................ 5
Solids ......................................................................................................................................... 5
Liquids ....................................................................................................................................... 5
Gases ......................................................................................................................................... 6
Waters of crystallisation ................................................................................................................ 6
Acids.............................................................................................................................................. 6
Alkalis ........................................................................................................................................ 6
Salts........................................................................................................................................... 7
Acid-base titrations.................................................................................................................... 7
Redox reactions ............................................................................................................................. 8
Oxidation numbers .................................................................................................................... 8
Reactions ................................................................................................................................... 9
Electrons, bonding and structure ....................................................................................................... 9
Electron structure .......................................................................................................................... 9
Shells and orbitals...................................................................................................................... 9
Ionisation energy ..................................................................................................................... 11
Bonding ....................................................................................................................................... 12

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Chemistry F321 13/05/2012 12:35
Ionic bonding ........................................................................................................................... 12
Covalent bonding..................................................................................................................... 13
Structure ..................................................................................................................................... 15
Shapes of molecules ................................................................................................................ 15
Electronegativity ...................................................................................................................... 16
Intermolecular forces............................................................................................................... 17
Metallic structures ................................................................................................................... 19
Ionic structure ......................................................................................................................... 19
Covalent .................................................................................................................................. 20
Properties.................................................................................................................................... 20
Metallic structures ................................................................................................................... 20
Giant ionic lattices ................................................................................................................... 21
Simple molecular structures .................................................................................................... 21
Giant covalent lattices ............................................................................................................. 22
Periodic Table.................................................................................................................................. 22
Development of the periodic table .............................................................................................. 22
Greeks ..................................................................................................................................... 22
Antoine Lavoisier ..................................................................................................................... 22
Johann Döbereiner .................................................................................................................. 23
John Newlands ........................................................................................................................ 23
Dmitri Mendeleev ....................................................................................................................…read more

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Chemistry F321 13/05/2012 12:35
Halides..................................................................................................................................... 28
Treating water ......................................................................................................................... 28
Testing for halide ions..............................................................................................................…read more

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Chemistry F321 13/05/2012 12:35
Atoms and Reactions
Atomic Structure
Changing atom
Many different theories of atomic structure have been proposed
Theories are rejected as evidence contradicts previous theories, and theories become more
accepted as scientists from different places and era's gain the same results
Greeks
500BC ­ Democtitus
He thought matter was made of particles
Suggested matter could only be divided a certain number of times
Believed you would end up with a particle that could no longer be split
He called this particle and…read more

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Chemistry F321 13/05/2012 12:35
o Most particles were not reflected
o A small number were deflected through very large angles
o Very few were directed back to the source
Led him to calculate that the positive charge must be concentrated to a small area within the
atom
Proposed a new model:
o The positive charge and most of its mass is concentrated into a central nucleus
o Negative electrons orbit the nucleus
o Most of the atoms space would be between the orbiting electrons and…read more

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Chemistry F321 13/05/2012 12:35
A negative ion has more electrons than its atom
A positive ion has fewer electrons than its atom
Isotopes
Isotopes are atoms of the same element with different number of neutrons but the same
number of protons (and electrons)
Most elements are made of a mixture of isotopes
Different isotopes react in the same way, since chemical reactions involve the movement of
electrons
Atomic masses
Carbon-12 is the standard measure of atomic masses; everything is measured relative to it
Relative isotopic…read more

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Chemistry F321 13/05/2012 12:35
M(element/compound)= sum of relative atomic masses for each atom which makes up a
formula unit in the compound
o n = amount of substance / mol
o m = mass / g
o M = molar mass / g mol-1
Formula
Empirical Formula
The empirical formula is the simplest whole-number ratio of atoms of each element present in a
compound
Empirical formulae are always used for compounds with giant structures, giving just the formula
unit
Calculating empirical formula
Element 1 Element…read more

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Chemistry F321 13/05/2012 12:35
Chemical equations
A chemical reaction can only rearrange atoms into different combinations that are more stable
They do not create nor destroy atoms or change atoms from one form to another
Reactants change chemically to form products
A species is any type of particle that takes part in a chemical reaction
In equations, giant structures are shown by their empirical formula, or just their element symbol
for metals
Some equations will include state symbols to add more information
o (s) ­…read more

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Chemistry F321 13/05/2012 12:35
Gases
Avogadro proposed that equal volumes of gases at RTP (room temperature and pressure)
contained equal numbers of molecules
This is now known as Avogadro's law
One mole of gas molecules at RTP occupies 24.0 dm3
Molar volume is the volume per mole of a gas in dm3 mol-1
Amount of substance, n (mol) = volume, V (dm3) / 24.…read more

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Chemistry F321 13/05/2012 12:35
o NH3(g) + H2O(l) NH4+(aq) + OH-(aq)
o This is a reversible/equilibrium reaction
o It is weak because of this since some of the OH- ions will re-react to form ammonia
o When ammonia is neutralised by an acid, ammonium ions are formed
NH3(aq) + H+(aq) NH4+(aq)
Some molecules are amphoteric, meaning they have acid and base properties
An example is amino acids
Salts
A salt is any chemical compound formed from an acid when a H+ ion from the acid…read more

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