AS Chemistry Atoms Bonds and Groups (OCR F321)

A full 30 page revision guide, made by ensuring that it covers absolutely everything on the specification. Made specifically for OCR module F321 although will cover most things in AQA and Edexcel specification. Some things going beyond the syllabus to help answer 'suggest why' questions. In word so you can make your own additions if you wish. Enjoy!

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Chemistry F321
Contents
Atoms and Reactions ......................................................................................................................... 1
Atomic Structure ........................................................................................................................... 1
Changing atom .......................................................................................................................... 1
Subatomic particles ................................................................................................................... 2
Ions ........................................................................................................................................... 2
Isotopes ..................................................................................................................................... 3
Atomic masses............................................................................................................................... 3
Moles and equations ..................................................................................................................... 3
Amount of substance ................................................................................................................. 3
Molar mass ................................................................................................................................ 3
Formula ..................................................................................................................................... 4
Chemical equations ....................................................................................................................... 5…

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Chemistry F321 13/05/2012 12:35


Ionic bonding ........................................................................................................................... 12
Covalent bonding..................................................................................................................... 13
Structure ..................................................................................................................................... 15
Shapes of molecules ................................................................................................................ 15
Electronegativity ...................................................................................................................... 16
Intermolecular forces............................................................................................................... 17
Metallic structures ................................................................................................................... 19
Ionic structure ......................................................................................................................... 19
Covalent .................................................................................................................................. 20
Properties.................................................................................................................................... 20
Metallic structures ................................................................................................................... 20
Giant ionic lattices ................................................................................................................... 21
Simple molecular structures…

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Chemistry F321 13/05/2012 12:35


Halides..................................................................................................................................... 28
Treating water ......................................................................................................................... 28
Testing for halide ions.............................................................................................................. 28




3
©Ross Edwards 2012

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Chemistry F321 13/05/2012 12:35



Atoms and Reactions

Atomic Structure

Changing atom
Many different theories of atomic structure have been proposed
Theories are rejected as evidence contradicts previous theories, and theories become more
accepted as scientists from different places and era's gain the same results

Greeks
500BC ­ Democtitus
He thought…

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Chemistry F321 13/05/2012 12:35


o Most particles were not reflected
o A small number were deflected through very large angles
o Very few were directed back to the source
Led him to calculate that the positive charge must be concentrated to a small area within the
atom
Proposed a new…

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Chemistry F321 13/05/2012 12:35


A negative ion has more electrons than its atom
A positive ion has fewer electrons than its atom

Isotopes
Isotopes are atoms of the same element with different number of neutrons but the same
number of protons (and electrons)
Most elements are made of a mixture…

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Chemistry F321 13/05/2012 12:35


M(element/compound)= sum of relative atomic masses for each atom which makes up a
formula unit in the compound


o n = amount of substance / mol
o m = mass / g
o M = molar mass / g mol-1

Formula

Empirical Formula
The empirical formula…

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Chemical equations
A chemical reaction can only rearrange atoms into different combinations that are more stable
They do not create nor destroy atoms or change atoms from one form to another
Reactants change chemically to form products
A species is any type of particle that takes…

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Chemistry F321 13/05/2012 12:35


Gases
Avogadro proposed that equal volumes of gases at RTP (room temperature and pressure)
contained equal numbers of molecules
This is now known as Avogadro's law
One mole of gas molecules at RTP occupies 24.0 dm3
Molar volume is the volume per mole of a gas…

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o NH3(g) + H2O(l) NH4+(aq) + OH-(aq)
o This is a reversible/equilibrium reaction
o It is weak because of this since some of the OH- ions will re-react to form ammonia
o When ammonia is neutralised by an acid, ammonium ions are formed
NH3(aq) + H+(aq)…

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