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Chapter 2.1 ­ Nucleic Acids ­ The molecules of life

Within every cell is a set of instructions for the assembling of new cells, both to form offspring and
to produce identical cells for growth.

Nucleic acids are the information molecules of the cell. They carry information needed to form…

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Meselson and Stahl's experiment supports the theory of semiconservative replication. They grew
several generations of the gut bacteria in a medium where there only source of nitrogen was the
radioactive isotope ¹N. The bacteria used ¹N to make cell chemicals, including proteins and DNA.
The bacteria was then moved to…

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Chromosomal mutations ­ changes in the position of genes within the chromosomes.

Whole-chromosome mutations ­ An entire chromosome is either lost during meiosis or duplicated
in one cell by errors in the process.

Exposure to mutagens such as X-rays, ionising radiation and certain chemicals, increases the rate at
which mutations…

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Between 0-40°C, the Q for any reaction is 2. This shows that every 10°C, the rate of the reaction
doubles. At 40°C the enzymes start to lose their tertiary and quaternary structures so they become

Different enzymes work best at different pH levels. Changes in pH affect the formation…


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