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Rivers, Flood and Flood
Drainage Basin Hydrological Cycle: The Water Balance
1.…read more

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Surface Storage- Includes water in puddles, ponds and lakes
3. Groundwater Storage- stored in soil or in rocks
4. Throughfall- water dripping from one leaf to another
5. Stemflow- running down a plant stem or tree trunk
6. Throughflow- water moving downhill through the soil
7. Groundwater flow- water flowing below the water table through permeable rock
Water Balance
1. Wet seasons,
precipitation >
evapotranspiration à water
surplus. Ground stores fill so
more runoff
2. In drier seasons,
precipitation <
evapotranspiration.…read more

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Factors Affecting River Discharge: the Storm Hydrograph
Factors Affecting Discharge
1. Precipitation- more precipitation, higher the discharge
2. Hot Weather- the higher the temperature, the lower the discharge because the
rate of evaporation is higher
3. Removal of water from the river reduces discharge
Hydrograph Affected By...
1. Large drainage basins (increased peak discharge)
2. Steep-sides (reduced lag)
3. Circular (increased peak charge)
4.…read more

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Impermeable rock (reduced lag and higher peak)
6. Clay soil (increase surface runoff so less lag and increased peak)
7. Vegetation (increased lag and reduced peak)
8. Intense storms (increased peak)
9. Type of precipitation (snow has long lag)
10. Hot & dry/ Cold & Freezing Hard Ground (reduced lag and increased peak)
11. High temperatures (reduced peak)
The Long Profile- Changing Processes: Types of Erosion,
Transportation and Deposition, Types of Load; The Hjulström
Long Profile
1.…read more

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Course Can Be Split Into Three
1. Upper Stage
a. Steep gradient and high above base level, so lots of gpe to be converted
to kinetic
2. Middle Stage
a. As gradient decreases, gpe is converted to kinetic energy so the river
gains velocity
3. Lower Stage
a. Tiny gradient and almost/ at base level. Little gpe but lots of kinetic so
moves fastest here
Types of Erosion
1. Hydraulic Action
a. Pressure of water breaks
rock particles away
2. Abrasion (corrasion)
a.…read more

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Dissolving of rock by chemical process. CO2 dissolves in water to make
weak acid, reacts with limestone and chalk
Types of Transportation
1. Solution
a. Substances that can dissolve are carried along in the water e.g. Limestone
dissolved in acidic rivers
2. Suspension
a. Very fine material e.g. Silt and clay, whipped by turbulence (erratic swirling)
and carried along in water. Most eroded material transported this way
3. Saltation
a. Larger particles e.g.…read more

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a. Larger materials (e.g. Boulders) too heavy to be picked up so may roll or
slide along floor. Some bounces (e.g. Pebbles)
2. Suspended load
a. Smaller materials (e.g. Mud). Stuff that is carried by the water and gives it
it's muddy colour
3. Solution load
a. Where carbonate rocks (e.g. Limestone/chalk) are dissolved into the
water (usually acidic)
Hjulström Curve
1. Hjulström curve shows relationship between velocity and competence
2.…read more

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Valley Profiles- Long Profile and Changing Cross Profile
Downstream, Graded Profile, Potential and Kinetic Energy
Upper Stage Middle Stage Lower Stage
Erosion Vertical by abrasion. Occurs Mainly lateral and by Although velocity and
in high-energy conditions abrasion. Attrition of larger discharge are highest, there's
(e.g. Heavy rain). Rough particles means sediment less erosion as less
channel causes turbulence particle size decreases from turbulence and particle size
and large angular rock is source to mouth reduced.…read more

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Deposition causes flood plain caused
valley floors and flood plain on by deposition
steep sided slopes valley floor
1. Potential Energy
a. When a river is high above base level, it has lots of potential energy (aka
gpe [gravitational potential energy]) which has the potential to create
other forms of energy e.g. Kinetic
2. Kinetic Energy
a.…read more


Alaia E

Thanks!!!! :)

Great notes

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