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Rivers, Flood and Flood
Management
Drainage Basin Hydrological Cycle: The Water Balance




1. Vegetation Storage- water taken up by plants

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2. Surface Storage- Includes water in puddles, ponds and lakes

3. Groundwater Storage- stored in soil or in rocks

4. Throughfall- water dripping from one leaf to another

5. Stemflow- running down a plant stem or tree trunk

6. Throughflow- water moving downhill through the soil

7. Groundwater flow- water…

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Factors Affecting River Discharge: the Storm Hydrograph




Factors Affecting Discharge

1. Precipitation- more precipitation, higher the discharge

2. Hot Weather- the higher the temperature, the lower the discharge because the
rate of evaporation is higher

3. Removal of water from the river reduces discharge

Hydrograph Affected By...

1. Large drainage…

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5. Impermeable rock (reduced lag and higher peak)

6. Clay soil (increase surface runoff so less lag and increased peak)

7. Vegetation (increased lag and reduced peak)

8. Intense storms (increased peak)

9. Type of precipitation (snow has long lag)

10. Hot & dry/ Cold & Freezing Hard Ground (reduced…

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Course Can Be Split Into Three

1. Upper Stage

a. Steep gradient and high above base level, so lots of gpe to be converted
to kinetic

2. Middle Stage

a. As gradient decreases, gpe is converted to kinetic energy so the river
gains velocity

3. Lower Stage

a. Tiny gradient…

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a. Dissolving of rock by chemical process. CO2 dissolves in water to make
weak acid, reacts with limestone and chalk

Types of Transportation

1. Solution

a. Substances that can dissolve are carried along in the water e.g. Limestone
dissolved in acidic rivers

2. Suspension

a. Very fine material e.g. Silt…

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1. Bedload

a. Larger materials (e.g. Boulders) too heavy to be picked up so may roll or
slide along floor. Some bounces (e.g. Pebbles)

2. Suspended load

a. Smaller materials (e.g. Mud). Stuff that is carried by the water and gives it
it's muddy colour

3. Solution load

a. Where…

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Valley Profiles- Long Profile and Changing Cross Profile
Downstream, Graded Profile, Potential and Kinetic Energy
Upper Stage Middle Stage Lower Stage


Erosion Vertical by abrasion. Occurs Mainly lateral and by Although velocity and
in high-energy conditions abrasion. Attrition of larger discharge are highest, there's
(e.g. Heavy rain). Rough particles means…

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creates narrow Deposition causes flood plain caused
valley floors and flood plain on by deposition
steep sided slopes valley floor
Energy

1. Potential Energy

a. When a river is high above base level, it has lots of potential energy (aka
gpe [gravitational potential energy]) which has the potential to create…

Comments

Alaia E

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Thanks!!!! :)

Great notes

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