A table that goes through all the cases that you need to know for unit 2 - criminal liability exam. 

Includes, names, dates, key facts and legal principles. 

If you found this helpful, see also the "KEY TERMS" and have a look at the "NEGLIGENCE" cases and key terms :) 

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Danielle CoakleyUnit 2: Concept of Liability Case Dictionary
Criminal Liability
Actus Reus
An involuntary act does not Hill v Baxter 1958 Crashed car charged reckless
form the actus reus of a driving, but he was unconscious
crime. whilst driving.
Contractual duty created an Pittwood 1902 Left train crossing gate open,
omission. man was killed.
Person's public position Dytham 1979 Man kicked to death,
created liability for omission. policeman watched (off duty).
Failure to minimise harm of a Miller 1983 Squatting in a house, started a
dangerous situation he fire and moved into another
created. room.
Taking on responsibility for Stone v Dobinson 1977 Anorexic sister needed medical
another person creates an help but they didn't seek
omission. assistance ­ she died.
Acts of Parliament can create Children and Young Persons Failure to look after a child
an omission. Act 1933 creates an omission.
No factual causation ­ White 1910 Son tried to poison mother but
defendants act did not cause she died of a heart attack.
the consequence.
Unusual result of the `but for' Pagett 1983 Used girlfriend as a shield, she
test but logical. died from police guns.
Legal causation ­ medical Jordan1956 Man was stabbed, wound
treatment was `palpably healed then was given wrong
wrong'. injection ­ died.
The original act was the Smith 1959 Fighting soilders ­ stabbed and
operating and substantial died hour later, poor medical
cause of the consequence. treatment ­ died of blood loss.
Legal causation, actual cause Cheshire 1991 Victim shot, died to
of death wasn't independent complications from
from the original act. tracheotomy that hadn't been
spotted, could be a link.
Switching off the life machine Malcherek 1981 Victim attacked, on life
did not break the chain of machine, doctors turned it off.
Take your victim as you find Blaue 1975 Victim stabbed, Jehova's
him ­ religious views. witness, refused blood
transfusion and died.
Victim's own act ­ Roberts 1971 Defendant made sexual
reasonable, chain of advances and girl jumped out
causation unbroken. the car.
Victim's own act ­ Williams 1992 Defendant attempted to job
unreasonable, chain of hitchhiker in the car, hitchhiker
causation broke. jumped out and died.

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Danielle CoakleyUnit 2: Concept of Liability Case Dictionary
Mens Rea
Example of direct intent Mohan 1979 Police pulled defendant over,
he stopped then drove at the
police, then drove off.
`Virtual certainty' for oblique Woolin 1998 Threw his baby at a wall ­ died.
Confirms that the virtual Matthews v Alleyne 2003 Pushed victim off bridge, knew
certainty test in Woolin he couldn't swim, watched him
allows the jury to infer intent. head towards the bank and
walked off, he drowned.…read more

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Danielle CoakleyUnit 2: Concept of Liability Case Dictionary
Example of characteristics of London Borough of Harrow v Selling lottery ticket to young
a strict liability offence, not Shah 2000 person, not truly criminal,
truly criminal, but of social matter of social concern.
The characteristic of strict Blake 1997 Unlicensed radio station,
liability in this case is that of traced to flat, claimed he didn't
public safety. know he was transmitting ­
pirate radio waves interfere
with public service systems ­
risk to public safety.…read more

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Danielle CoakleyUnit 2: Concept of Liability Case Dictionary
Explains that a wound JCC v Eisenhower 1984 Hit in the eye with airgun,
requires breaking both layers bruising and internal bleeding,
of the skin. and no wounding as skin did
not break.
Collection of relatively minor Brown v Stratton 1998 Transsexual son, father and
injuries amounted to cousin attacked him, broken
grievous bodily harm nose, three lost teeth and
concussion.…read more



Really good information !

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