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Ambassador Fundamental ideas!
Atomic, elements and compounds.

All substances are made of Atoms.

Some substances are made up of only one type of atom, we call these Elements.

Most substances we come across aren't pure metal, but have different atoms joined
together, we call these Compounds. Chemical bonds hold the…

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The elements in the periodic table are
arranged in order of their atomic number (number of protons).

The number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom is called its Mass number.

Number of neutrons= mass number- atomic number

To work out the number of neutrons:

Arrangement of…

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To save time form drawing atoms, we write down the number of electrons in each energy
level, this is called the Electronic structure.

You can also look at the periodic
table to know what the how many electrons the outermost layer contains, by looking at an
elements group, the periodic…

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2, 6
Oxygen O

The chemical properties in an atom depend on how many electrons it has. The way an
element reacts is determined by the number of electrons in its highest energy level.
Therefore elements in the same group that have the same number of electrons on their

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· Word equations are only useful if everyone who reads them speaks the same

· Word equations do not tell us how much of each substance is involved in the

· Word equations can get complicated when lots of chemicals are involved

The total mass of the products…

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Rotary Lime Kiln

To make lots of calcium oxide this reaction is done in a furnace called a lime kiln.

· We fill he kiln with crushed limestone

· Heat it strongly using a supply of hot air

· Calcium oxide comes out of the bottom of the kiln


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Calcium carbonate + Hydrochloric acid calcium chloride + water + carbon dioxide

Carbonates react with acids to give a salt, water and carbon dioxide. For calcium carbonate
the reaction with hydrochloric acid is:

The `Limestone reaction cycle'

Calcium oxide + water Calcium hydroxide

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Neutralising acids

Calcium hydroxide is an alkali. It reacts with acids in a neutralisation reaction. The products of
the reaction are a calcium salt and water.

Calcium hydroxide is used by farmers to improve soil that is acidic. Because it is an alkali, it
will raise the pH of acidic…

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used as a reservoir or for leisure activities. There is also the possibility of use as landfill sites
for household rubbish before covering with soil and replanting.

Metals and their uses:
Extracting metals

Metals are found in the earths crust. We find most metals combined chemically with other
chemical elements,…

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Because carbon is more reactive than each of these metals, we use carbon to extract the
metals from their oxides. We must heat the metal oxide with carbon. The carbon removes
the oxygen from the metal oxide to form carbon dioxide.

Metal oxide + Carbon Metal + Carbon Dioxide



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