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AQA Chem1 ­ Foundation Chemistry

By Bryony Tomlinson

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1.1 Atomic Structure
Structure of the Atom

Relative atomic mass (Ar)
The weighted average mass of an atom of an element, taking into account its naturally occurring
isotopes, relative to one twelfth of an atom of carbon 12

Relative molecular mass (Mr)
The mass of a molecule compared to one…

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The mass spectrometer is used to obtain the mass and percentage abundance of the isotope of an

1. The sample is ionised by bombarding it with high-energy electrons fired from an electron gun
2. The ions are accelerated by attracting them towards a negatively charged plate, which has a…

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the ionic radius decreases
the force of attraction from the nucleus increases
distance from the nucleus
the closer the distance, the stronger the force of attraction
the number of shells
the more shells there are, the further the outermost electrons are from the nucleus
electrons in the inner shells repel…

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The number of atoms or molecules in one mole is a constant known as Avogadro's Constant; 6.022 x

Molar mass
The mass of one mole of a substance is called the molar mass. The units of molar mass are gmol-1

mol = mass/Mr

Amount of substance per unit…

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Molecular formula
The actual number of atoms of each element in one molecule

Calculating molecular formula
1. Calculate the % of each element (mass/total mass)
2. Divide each % by the Ar of each element
3. Divide each answer by the smallest answer
4. Determine the empirical formula
5. Compare…

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1.3 Bonding
Metallic bonding
Metals are shiny elements made up of atoms which can easily lose up to 3 outer electrons, leaving
positive ions

In a metal element, the outer shells merge; the outer electrons are no longer associated with a particular

Metals consist of a lattice of positive…

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Pure carbon with covalent bonding throughout

Giant structure; bonding spread throughout the structure

Each carbon atom forms 4 single covalent bonds with other carbon atoms

The bonds point to the corners of a tetrahedron, as the bonds repel as far apart as possible

Atoms form a giant 3D lattice…

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Ionic bonding
Bonds between two oppositely-charged ions

Between groups 1&2 and groups 6&7

Electrostatic force of attraction

Metals have low ionisation energies; can lose electrons easily to form positive ions

Non-metals have high electron affinities; gain electrons easily to form negative ions

Oppositely charged ions are attracted electrostatically and form…

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The ability of an atom to attract the bonding electrons towards itself in a covalent bond

If either atom has electronegativity greater than 1.9 & the difference in electronegativity between the
two atoms is similar (less than 0.5), the bonding is covalent

If the difference is large (greater than…


umar ali


are these the only notes you used and how did you do on the exam



These are brill, I'm resitting for an A and really couldn't find the energy to sieve through the **** in the textbook. Thank-you! 

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