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Biology Unit 4
Variation terms
Genotype- Genetic constitution of the organism
Phenotype- The expression of a allele e.g. hair colour
Recessive- Only expressed in the phenotype when homozygous, rr
Dominant- Can be expressed either heterozygous or homozygous, RR or Rr
Co-dominant- Both alleles are expressed in the phenotype, RB


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Releases energy is small manageable amounts
It is broken down in one step
Provides an immediate supply of energy
It adds phosphate which makes these phosphorylated substances more reactive by lowering Ea
It can be reformed

Uses of ATP
Muscle contraction and other types of movement e.g. by cilia, flagella…

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ATP produced in Krebs cycle
Krebs produces NADH and FADH
Electrons are released from NADH and FADH
Electrons then pass through ECT through series of redox reactions
This releases energy and creates a proton gradient
Protons move into intermembrane space
Move back via ATP synthase creating ATP from ADP+Pi


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Occurs in light independent reaction, in the Stroma

Carbon cycle (from dead to leaf)
M.O that decompose are saprobionts
They decompose through extracellular digestion by secreting enzymes onto dead tissue
Absorb products of digestion (glucose)
The M.O respire and produce CO2
CO2 is taken into the leaves- photosynthesis
Diffuse through…

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Variation leads to a mutation
Allele for resistance is favourable
This allele is selected for
Pests with this allele more likely to survive and reproduce, passing on the allele to offspring so frequency of
the allele increases

Intensive rearing (How it increases net productivity (Net productivity = Gross productivity ­…

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Measuring tapes are placed at right angles after finding area on a grid/using coordinates and random
numbers (from tables or a computer) are used as coordinates to choose sampling points in the area.
Then either use a line transect, where organisms touching a piece of string stretched along the…


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