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AQA ­ Biology GCSE Revision
Additional Biology (B2)…read more

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Chapter 1 - Cells
What you need to know:
· Animal and Plant Cells
· How do plant cells differ from animal cells
· What do the different parts of your cells do
· How all the chemicals reactions which take place in your cells are
· Specialised Cells
· What different types of cells there are
· How the structure of a specialised cell is related to its function
· How do substances get in and out of cells
· What is diffusion and what affects the rate of diffusion
· Osmosis
· What is osmosis and how is it different from diffusion…read more

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Animal and Plant Cells
Ribosome's Cell Wall ­
Nucleus - controls Cell Membrane ­ keeps the cells
cell activity Mitochondria shape
controls what
comes in and out
of the cell
Ribosome's ­
where protein Cell
Nucleus Membrane
synthesis takes
Cytoplasm ­
where metabolic
reaction take Permanent
Mitochondria ­ place Vacuole ­
where energy is Chloroplast ­ absorbs light filled with
released into energy to make food cell sap
respiration (makes the plant green)
Cytoplasm…read more

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Specialised Cells
·Specialised cells can only carry out one function (they cant carry out more than one like
the normal cell)
*Need to be able to relate the structure
of the specialised cells to their function
in a tissue or organ*
Tissue = a group of similar Cell Tissue Organ
cells carrying out a
particular function Nerve Nervous Spinal cord Nervous
Organ = a group of Sperm Heart Breathing
different tissues carrying
Root hair Lateral root
out a particular function.
Red Blood Leaf…read more

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How Do Substances Get In And Out Of Cells
·The movement of particles of a gas or solute from an area of high concentration to
an area of low concentration
·Increased temperature, concentration and surface increases the rate of diffusion as
the particles move faster
Molecules of ammonia (NH) diffuse from one end of the tube and the
molecules of Hydrogen Chloride (HCl) diffuse from the other.
When they meet along the tube they react and form a white cloud of
ammonium chloride (NHCl)
·Oxygen diffuses in through the cell
membrane from red blood cells carrying
oxygen in the blood stream (from an
area of high concentration `red blood
cells' to an area of low concentration
`the cell')
·A higher respiration rate increases the Diffusion in the lungs
rate of diffusion of oxygen in the cell…read more

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·The movement of water (or small molecules) through a partially permeable
membrane from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
A partially permable membrane allows small molecules to diffuse through it but blocks
large molecules
The level of water, on one side of the partially
permeable membrane increases in osmosis
due to the fact the partially permeable
membrane allows only small molecules
(water) through and not the large sugar
Osmosis in plants is used to support their stems
and leaves. When to much water enters the cell
the pressure builds up making the cell rigid, thus
the opposite happens when there is not enough
water in the cell…read more

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