Slides in this set
Adolf Hitler & the Nazi
Party "...some one has said:
'Since the Revolution the
people has gained `Rights.'
The people governs!'
Strange! The people has
now been ruling three
years and no one has in
practice once asked its
opinion. Treaties were
signed which will hold us
down for centuries: and
who has signed the
treaties? The people? No!
Governments which one
fine day presented
GCSE History…read more
Adolf Hitler was born on the 20th April 1889 and was the fourth child of Alois and
Klara Hitler; his mother is believed to have been the niece of his father.
His family life can be described as being quite rigid and authoritarian, perhaps where he
gained the belief in dictatorships rather than democracies; "The family structure
could well be characterized as the prototype of a totalitarian regime. Its sole,
undisputed, often brutal ruler is the father. The wife and children are totally
subservient to his will, his moods, and his whims; they must accept humiliation and
injustice unquestioningly and gratefully. Obedience is their primary rule of
He was quite artistic as a child, and had a love of war which stemmed from when he
found a book on the Franco-Prussian war in his father's possessions when he was
boy. After his younger brother, Edmund died, he became withdrawn, rebellious; his
relationship with his father deteriorated and he did the best he could to rebel against
his father and chose to call himself `German' (his father was proud of being
Austrian and so Adolf hated being Austrian as a result).
He moved around quite a lot, his father being in the profession of an Austrian Customs
official meant the family didn't stay in one place all that long; although his father
did retire at one point to take up farming and beekeeping but ultimately failed at
World War One
After the death of his parent's Hitler spent his time in Venice, living on the inheritance
he had received from his father's will, and had refused to be conscripted into the
Austrian Military. When they eventually caught up with Hitler he was declared as
being `unfit for war... Too weak to bear arms' and so Hitler did not see anything of
war or the military until the break out of World War One.
Since Hitler had no love for Austria and believed himself to be German he joined the
German military and ended up on the front during the war. He took up the position
of being a `runner' on the western front and was injured at least two times; once
when he was shot in the leg and another time when he was blinded by mustard gas.
During the war he held the rank `Gerfreiter' (Lance Corporal) and was decorated twice
for bravery; receiving the Iron Cross, second-class in 1914 and the Iron Cross, first-
class in 1918. He also received the Wound Badge in 1917 (after being injured during
the Battle of the Somme in 1916).
Hitler was in hospital, recovering from a mustard gas attack, when the news of
Germany's surrender reached him. He, like many Germans, was appalled and hated
the Treaty of Versailles since it placed limitations upon Germany and was further
Also the fact that Wilhelm II fled to Holland after the defeat of Germany made Hitler
even more embittered.…read more
Return to Germany
After the defeat that Germany suffered Hitler made his way to Germany, ending up in
Munich, where he observed members of the Freikorp breaking up a rally against the
Kaiser. After the suppression of the Bavarian Soviet Republic, he took part in
"national thinking" courses organized by the Education and Propaganda
Department of the Bavarian Reichswehr Group, Headquarters 4 under Captain Karl
Mayr. Hitler chose to join them in their attempts to be rid of the Jews and
Communists, who ended up being the scapegoats for Germany's defeat.
In July 1919, Hitler was sent to be a spy (Verbindungsmann; police spy) in a relatively
small party in Munich called the German Worker's Party (DAP: Deutsche
Arbeiterpartei ). It was as a result of this that Hitler realised that this small party
held many of the same beliefs that he himself had ranted about during the war, he
was invited to join the party by Anton Drexler (the leader of the party) due to his
oratory skills, his speeches. He joined the party on 12th September 1919 and was it's
He was introduced to Dietrich Eckart, who was one of the founders of the party, and
Eckart mentored Hitler on his speeches and his attire as well as introducing to a
large variety of people. Powerful, influential people.…read more
In 1920 Hitler was discharged from the military and was encouraged to take more of an
active part in the DAP. The DAP, in a bid to gain more support from people
changed its name, adding two more words; `National' and `Socialist' so that it
became the NSDAP (National Socialist German Worker's Party;
Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei).
By 1921 Hitler was becoming a highly effective speaker, but he was still relatively
unknown outside of Munich, and in February sent out trucks with Swastika's and
leaflets to distribute to the people, and he ended up speaking to a crowd of around
six thousand people.
When Hitler went to Berlin in the summer of 1921 there was a revolt in the party and he
had to rush back and threaten to resign from the party, which would have effectively
ended to the party since Hitler was the main reason they had such support, to stop
the revolt. As a result Hitler realised that he had a great amount of power since he
was their key to success and so manipulated the committee leaders to appoint him
leader of the party; Anton Drexler at the time was the leader and he was obviously
against this. However, they eventually gave in and Hitler became the new leader of
the NSDAP (shortened to Nazi).
At the next gathering on 29th June 1921 Hitler was announced the Führer of the party.…read more
The Beer Hall Putsch
Hitler, preferring the way Italy was a fascist state ran by Mussolini, decided to re-enact
Mussolini's `March on Rome' in his own version of a take-over. At the time that he
planned the Putsch the Weimar Republic was having to deal with the issue of the
occupation of the Ruhr which was crippling Germany, and so Hitler believed that he
could simply walk into the centre of Munich and takeover without anyone stopping
him. He believed that he could rule Germany by force.
So on 8th November 1923 Hitler and the SA stormed into a public meeting where he
declared that he had set up a new government and that Gustav von Kahr and the
local military support him in his bid to take over the government of Germany.
The next day Hitler and his followers marched from the Beer Hall to the Bavarian War
Ministry only they were intercepted by a solid blockade of police and soldiers who,
upon the Nazi's continued march, fired upon them. The Putsch failed and lasted for
a grand total of two minutes; also around 16 members of the NSDAP were killed as
Hitler fled the scene, hiding out in home of Ernst Hanfstaengl, and ended up
contemplating suicide before being caught roughly forty-eight hours after the failed
He was charged with high treason as a result of the Putsch.…read more